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TO 

MY MOTHER 



"UNCLE TOM'S CABIN" 

IN 
GERMANY 



BY 

GRACE EDITH MACLEAN, Ph. D. 



AMERICANA GERMANICA 
VOLUME "X 



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OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 

D, APPLETON & COMPANY 

Publishing Agents 

NEW YORK 

1910 



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COPYRIGHTED BY GRACE EDITH MACLEAN 
1910 



(0;GIA288312 



PEEFACE. 



Among the many ways in which America has influenced 
the culture of Germany, that of the subject of slavery is 
shown in the multitude of translations, adaptations and imi- 
tations of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

From the earliest days of the Colonies the Germans in 
America were strongly opposed to slavery, as were the 
Quakers. This question was a most important one and was 
discussed by Pastorius in his *' Protest against Negro 
Slavery", brought by the Germans before the Friends 'Meet- 
ing in 1688, and among those who fought in the War for In- 
dependence there were also Germans who felt the growing 
earnestness of the slavery question as Philipp Waldeck 
shows in his ''Tagebuch", 1776-1783. The revolutionists 
of '48 were heart and soul for freedom, and the many who 
came to America at that time and later participated in the 
Civil War were led to do so largely by the strong abolition 
feeling which prevailed. 

The influence spread to the homeland, as is proved by 
letters, newspaper reports and discussions, but most of all 
by Mrs. Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin. This was circulated in 
translation in every town and city of Germany, adapted and 
presented on the stage, and imitated by well-known and 
obscure writers and translators, many of whom endeavored 
to share in the fame and others in the pecuniary benefits of 
the great wave of excitement which swept around the world. 
A study of the influence of Uncle Tom reveals the interest 
in American social life, indignation at the evils of slavery, 
and close sympathy between Germany and America. 

(vii) 



VIU PREFACE 

This work was begun with the encouragement of Pro- 
fessor M. D, Learned of the University of Pennsylvania, 
and was completed during three years of research work in 
Germany under Professor J. Hoops, of the University of 
Heidelberg, the inspiration and always kindly advice and 
help of both of whom I hereby most gratefully acknowledge. 

G. E. MacLean. 



CONTENTS. 



V 

I. Introduction. 

1. Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe. Biographical Sketch. 

2. Uncle Tom's Cabin, and its Importance in the Anti- 

Slavery Movement. 

II. German Translations. 
^ III. Notices and Reviews. 

1. Circulating Libraries and Publishers' Notices. 

2. Newspaper Comments and Critical Eeviews. 
■" IV. Uncle Tom's Cabin in Poetry and Music. 

V. Uncle Tom's Cabin on the Stage. 

1. In German Theatres in America. 

2. In Germany. 

VI. Influence on Literature. 

1. Hacklander. 

2. Auerbach. 

3. Minor Writers. 

(a) ''Eettcliffe." 

(b) Gothe. 

(c) Other Minor Writers. 

4. Juvenile Literature. 
^'' VII. Conclusion. ^ 
\y VIII. Appendix. 

1. List of Eeviews consulted. 

(a) Eeviews of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

(b) Eeviews of the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

2. Bibliography. 

(a) General Eeferences. 

(b) Mrs. Stowe and Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

(c) Translations. 

3. Translations and Eeviews of the other works of Mrs. 

Stowe. 

(a) Translations. 

(b) Eeviews. 

(ix) 



I. Intkoduction. 

"It is probable that no novel ever written has had such 
an immense popularity or has ever exerted so great an in- 
fluence on human affairs as Uncle Tom's Cabin. In its 
power of simple pathos, in its passionate humanitarianism, 
in its instinctive art, it is unique. It has the rare kind of 
greatness which belongs to a large and simple design faith- 
fully executed. If it has ceased to be read, it is because 
the cause it pleaded is won — the highest possible tribute to 
its influence."^ 

Such is the criticism of a fair-minded critic of the novel. 

Europe was a sympathizer with the New World to 
which it was closely bound by emigration, but before the 
War for the Union in the United States, little thought was 
directed to the dark problem of slavery which was growing 
daily more serious, until Mrs. Stowe so graphically pictured 
the conditions of society. Then, immediately, an interest 
was aroused — critical and anxious, because the principle of 
right and wrong was involved. 

It is, indeed, a unique experience for an author to find 
herself so suddenly famous — ''die Lowin des Tages",^ as 
she was called. "Onkel Tomi's Hiltte, von Beecher-Stowe 
brachte die ganze Welt in fieberhaf te Auf regung. ' '^ 

How far did this interest extendi Was it only fostered 
by revolutionists or by a public sympathetic with the op- 
pressed and down-trodden, and did this interest manifest it- 
self as an influence? 

These questions, it is our purpose to answer, as well 
as may be, in regard to Germany. The subject may be di- 
vided into the following parts : 



' W. J. Dawson, ' ' The Makers of English Fiction, ' ' Lon. 1905, p. 265-6. 

'■Auslmd, 1854, II, No. 34, p. 803, Aug. 25. 

' Badische Landesseitung, 1854, No. 251, Oct. 27. 

(11) 



12 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEEMANY 

I. Uncle Tom's Cabin in Translation. 
II. Uncle Tom's Cabin in Reviews. 

III. Uncle Tom's Cabin on the Stage. 

IV. Imitations and Influence on the Novel. 
V. Influence in general upon the People. 

1. Biography. 

Before entering upon the discussion of the questions 
above suggested, it will be necessary to sketch the life and 
works of Mrs. Stowe. 

Harriet Elizabeth Beecher-Stowe* (1811-1896), the third 
daughter of the Eev. Lyman Beecher and Roxanna Foote- 
Beecher, was born June 14, 1811, at Litchfield, Connecticut. 
Her father was the Congregational minister of the town, 
and the community in which she spent her childhood was 
one of the most intellectual in New England. Mrs. Beecher 
died when Harriet was four years of age, but the memory 
of her strong sympathetic nature remained with her children 
throughout their lives. Mrs. Stowe writes : 

''Although my mother's bodily presence disappeared 
from our circle, I think that her memory and example 
had more influence in moulding her family than the living 
presence of many mothers. The passage in Uncle Tom, 
where Augustine St. Clair describes his mother's influence, 
is a simple reproduction of my own mother's influence as 
it has always been felt in her family. ' ' 

After her mother's death, Mrs. Stowe was placed in the 
care of her grandmother and aunt in Guilford, Conn., and 
here began her first steps in education. She listened with 
untiring interest to the ballads of Sir Walter Scott, and of 
Robert Burns, and searched eagerly for something as 
interesting among the sermons and pamphlets of the garret. 
Finally she discovered an old cbpy of Arabian Nights, which 
was to her "a dream of delight — an enchanted palace, 
through which her imagination ran wild", and this book and 



C. E. Stowe, Biography of Mrs. Stowe, Boston & N. Y., 1889. 



INTKODUCTION 13 

Cotton Mather's Magnalia were the greatest treasures of 
her childhood. 

After the marriage of her father to Harriet Porter, of 
Portland, Maine, her schooldays began at the Litchfield 
Academy, under the charge of Sarah Price and John Brace. 
The character and methods of instruction of her teachers 
here always remained pleasant memories with Mrs. Stowe : 

'*Mr. Brace exceeded all the teachers that I ever knew 
in the faculty of teaching composition," she writes. ''Much 
of the inspiration and training of my early days consisted 
not in the things I was supposed to be studying, but in 
hearing, while seated unnoticed at my desk, the conversa- 
tion of Mr. Brace with the older classes. ' ' 

The influences of her home at this time were likewise 
stimulating. Dr. Beecher was a strong, sound man in body 
and mind, and his religious influence was ever healthy and 
cheerful. His system of theology was broad and compre- 
hensive—that of a Calvinist. His children grew up in 
an atmosphere of intellectual and moral enthusiasm, and 
Mrs. Stowe, at the age of twelve years, was a bright, 
thoughtful child, who listened with attention to the sermons 
of her father, delivered in the village church. Dr. Beecher 
was a friend of the poor and needy, and his sermons and 
prayers at the time of the Missouri agitation drew tears 
from the eyes of the hard old farmers who listened; as, 
earnestly and passionately longing to help the cause of the 
slave, he appealed for "poor, oppressed, bleeding Africa, 
that the time of her deliverance might come. ' ' 

Thus it was natural that from her childhood Mrs. Stowe 
should become an enemy of slavery. In 1824, she went to 
Hartford, Conn., to attend the school that had been estab- 
lished there by her elder sister, Catharine, and the strong 
character of the latter stamped itself upon the sensitive 
and imaginative nature of her younger sister. Here she re- 
mained as pupil and teacher until 1832, when Dr. Beecher 
accepted a call to become president of the newly founded 
Lane Theological Seminary, and removed with his family to 



14 UNCLE TOM's cabin IN GERMANY 

Cinciniiati. Catharine Beecher also accompanied them, eager 
to establish a school, with Harriet as an assistant, which 
should be one of the pioneer schools for women in the West. 
Here Harriet took an active part in the school life, com- 
piled an Elementary Greography, wrote lectures for the 
classes ; and, as a member of the Semi-Colon Club, a social 
and literary circle, at the meetings of which the questions 
of the day were discussed, she contributed humorous 
sketches and poems. Her first literary work was written 
for the Western Monthly, and afterwards was republished 
in The Mayflower. 

January 6, 1836, she was married to Eev. Calvin Ellis 
Stowe, one of the professors in the seminary, a man of 
wide interests, especially in education. It was largely his 
encouragement that led her to continue in literary work. 

During her residence of eighteen years in Cincinnati, 
Mrs. Stowe had frequently visited the slave States, first in 
1833 in a trip to Kentucky, where she was a guest at an 
estate afterwards portrayed as Colonel Shelby's in Uncle 
•Tom, and acquired the minute knowledge of Southern 
life, which is so conspicuously displayed in her works. The 
problem of human slavery was constantly thrust upon her 
attention, for a river only separated Ohio from a slave- 
holding community. Slaves were continually escaping from 
their masters, and were sheltered by the circle in which 
she lived and assisted on their journey to Canada. During 
the riots in which James G. Birney's press was destroyed, 
in 1836, only the distance from the city and the depths of 
mud saved the Lane Seminary from a like fate, for it was 
strong in Abolitionists, and the excitement was intense. Mrs. 
Stowe watched the course of events with keenest interest, 
and in the great debate, which was political, economical 
and moral, she took an active part. 

In June, 1836, Professor Stowe sailed for London to 
buy books for the seminary, and at home his wife continued 
to write occasionally for the Western Monthly and for the 
New York Evangelist. 



INTEODUCTION 15 

The ten years, 1840 to 1850, tell a story of poverty, 
famine and cholera in Cincinnati; but through it all, Mrs. 
Stowe kept up her correspondence with Eastern friends, 
and in 1842 visited Hartford, Conn., to regain her health. 
It is then that her husband writes to her : 

"My dear, you must be a literary woman. It is so writ- 
ten in the Book of Fate. Make all your calculations accord- 
ingly. Get a good stock of health, and brush up your mind. 
Drop the E out of your name, it only encumbers it and in- 
terferes with the flow of euphony. Write yourself, fully 
and always: Harriet Beecher-Stowe — ^which is a name 
euphonious, flowing, and full of meaning. Then, my word 
for it, your husband will lift up his head in the gate, and 
your children will rise up and call you blessed." 

In the summer of 1849, during the absence of Professor 
Stowe, the epidemic of cholera in Cincinnati brought sor- 
row to the family in the death of the youngest child ; but in 
September of the same year Professor Stowe was elected to 
a professorship in Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Maine, and 
removed with his family thither. It was in the midst of the 
excitement caused by the passage of the Fugitive Slave Law 
that Mrs. Stowe arrived in Boston from the West, and she 
was prepared for the great work which came to her, little by 
little, as a message which she must deliver; and when she 
went on to Brunswick, she was kept informed of events in 
Boston by her friends, among whom were those who were 
blind and deaf to all arguments against the law which, as 
Mrs. Stowe thought, all benevolent and tender-hearted 
Christians should believe unjust. 

Mrs. Edward Beecher, in a letter to Mrs. Stowe, said 
after describing the enforcement of the law in Boston: 
"Now, Hattie, if I could use a pen as you can, I would 
write something that would make this whole nation feel what 
an accursed thing slavery is. ' ' 

Mrs. Stowe read this letter aloud to her family, and 
when she came to the passage quoted, she rose from her 



16 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

chair and exclaimed, ^*I will write something. I will, if I 
live." 

And in the quiet of a country town, far away from the 
actual contact with painful scenes, but on the edge of the 
whirlwind raised by the Fugitive Slave Bill, memory and 
imagination had full scope, and she wrote for the National 
Era, an anti-slavery weekly paper of Washington. D. C, 
Uncle Tom's Cabin; or, Life Among the Lowly. The story 
appeared as a serial from June 5, 1851, to April 1, 1852. 
It was begun as a magazine tale, but the interest excited 
by the story, and the encouragement which the author re- 
ceived, compelled her to continue until it had become a 
volume which has a place among the notable books of the 
world. In the meantime Professor Stowe was appointed 
Professor of Biblical Literature in the Theological Seminary 
at Andover, Mass., and with his family removed to that 
place about the time Uncle Tom's Cabin was published. 

At first Mrs. Stowe was despondent as to the result of 
her literary effort ; she says : 

*'It seemed to me that there was no hope; that nobody 
would hear; that nobody would read, nobody would pity; 
that this frightful system, which pursued its victims into the 
free States, might at least threaten them even in Canada." 
But the publication of the story in book form March 20, 
1852, by J. P. Jewett & Co., Boston, was a factor which 
must be reckoned as one of the moving causes of the War 
for the Union. 

In the spring of 1853, Mrs. Stowe 's health made a com- 
plete rest and change of scene necessary, and she sailed for 
England, accompanied by Professor Stowe and her brother, 
Eev. Charles Beecher, by invitation of the Anti-slavery Soci- 
ety of Glasgow. This journey enabled her to meet the leading 
writers of the day, and everywhere she was received most 
cordially and much money was collected to aid the anti- 
slavery cause. The experiences of this trip were published 
the following year in the form of a collection of letters of 



II^TEODTJCTION 17 

Mrs. Stowe and her brother during their travels under the 
title of Sunny Memories of Foreign Lands.^ Three years 
later, another visit was made to England and the Continent, 
one of the purposes of which was to arrange for an English 
edition of Dred, a Tale of the Dismal Sivamp, which had 
appeared in the spring of 1856. The same book was re- 
issued in 1866 under the title of Nina Gordon, but has been 
again published under the original title. During the trip 
through Germany (1856) Mrs. Stowe visited Heidelberg, 
leaving August 1, for Frankfurt a/M., where the party 
made their headquarters at Hotel Eussie, and from there 
went to Mainz and down the Ehine, visiting Bingen, Cob- 
lenz, Bonn, Drachenfels. They also visited the famous gal- 
leries in Diisseldorf, and in Leipzig were entertained by 
Tauchnitz, the publisher. After spending a few days in 
Wittenberg and Berlin, they returned to Paris, via Ant- 
werp, August 20. 

In December, 1858, the first chapter of the Minister's 
Wooing appeared in the Atlantic Monthly, and about the 
same time the Pearl of Orr's Island was published as a 
serial in the Independent. A third trip to Europe was made 
in 1859 to aid the anti-slavery cause. 

The outbreak of the Civil War found Mrs. Stowe in 
Andover, Mass., working earnestly for freedom both in 
America and through her influence in Europe. In 1864 Pro- 
fessor Stowe resigned his professorship at Andover, and 
they made their home in Hartford, Conn., spending the win- 
ters in Mandarin, Florida, as long as the health of Professor 
Stowe allowed him to travel. Mrs. Stowe passed many happy 
winters in her Southern home until the death of her hus- 
band in 1886, after which she spent the rest of her life in 
Hartford, near the homes of ''Mark Twain", Charles D. 
Warner, and others, who formed the select literary "co- 
terie" of Asylum Hill. She died July 1, 1896, and was buried 
in Andover beside her husband. 



"2 vols. Boston, 1854. 



18 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

2. The Importance of ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'' in the Anti- 
slavery Movement. 

In Uncle Tom's Cabin Mrs. Stowe draws a picture of 
slaveliolding in the Southern States as she had witnessed 
it, putting in a concrete form the actual horrors of slavery. 
The plot is somewhat rambling, but her characters have a 
vitality which makes them real. Her description, a back- 
ground which she had known from personal experience, 
arouses the sentiment of the reader through its faithful- 
ness to nature, so that he accepts it as true. The arguments 
for and against the system are introduced intelligently, and 
her reasoning is logical and convincing, so that even the 
Southern reader could not but recognize the evils of the 
institution which he so strongly upheld. Until the appear- 
ance of Uncle Tom's Cabin, slavery had been considered by 
the North as a deplorable abstraction, but wherever the 
book went it awakened this abstraction to life. 

''It was not written for a political purpose, but for 
moral suasion",® to show that each revolving year in the 
life of the nation brought nearer the inevitable crisis in 
which the Elder America would perish and the New America 
arise. 

The state of political feeling which prevailed at this 
time can hardly be appreciated by the present generation ; 
the sensibilities of the modern readers are blunted to the 
evil which nearly caused the downfall of the Union. Negro 
slavery had died out in the Northern States during the first 
quarter of the 19th century; but the condition of industry 
in the South had stimulated the institution there, until it 
had assumed social and economic importance. The Quakers 
had always opposed slavery, as had the majority of the 
Germans in America, and the anti-slavery movement went 
slowly on with men like Garrison, Sumner and Parker, sacri- 
ficing their social career to the principles in which they 



•C. E. Stowe, Biog. Mrs. Stowe. 



* INTRODUCTION 19 

believed; but when Mrs. Stowe's book was produced, the 
movement became popular. 

The sentiment of Uncle Tom's Cabin endures and will 
always be as true as when it first stirred the hearts of the 
many thousands of readers ; for it expresses slave-life itself, 
not a comparison, — a new field into which no novelist had 
penetrated — and the vigor of treatment, depth of pathos 
and independence of style have insured to the author last- 
ing admiration. 

When the story appeared in book form, three thousand 
copies were sold the first day — a second edition was issued 
the following week, and within a year one hundred and 
twenty editions had been issued in the United States. Samp- 
son Low, who afterwards became Mrs. Stowe's English 
publisher, thus records its success in England :" 

"From April to December, 1852, twelve different edi- 
tions (not reissues), at one shilling, were published; and 
within the twelve months of its first appearance no less than 
eighteen different houses in London were engaged in sup-' 
plying the demand that had set in. The total number of 
editions was forty, varying from the fine illustrated edition 
of 15s. to the cheap and popular one at Qd. After care- 
fully analyzing these editions and weighing probabilities 
with ascertained facts, I am able pretty confidently to say 
that the aggTcgate number circulated ia Great Britain and 
her colonies exceeded one million and a half. ' ' 

"It was read everywhere, by all classes of people; talk 
of it filled the atmosphere. Heated discussions, occasioned 
by it, resounded in cottage, farmhouse, business offices and 
palatial residences all over the land. The pity, distress 
and soul-felt indignation ia which it had been written, were 
by it transferred to the minds and consciences of its read- 
ers, and the antagonism it everywhere engendered, threw 
the social life of this country and England into angTy effer- 
vescence through all its strata. 

' Old South Leaflets No. 82: ''The Story of TJ. T. C," p. 16. 



20 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

'' Echoes of its clarion tones came back to Mrs. Stowe in 
her quiet home in Brunswick, returning as they had struck 
the world, with clashing dissonance or low, sweet tones of 
human feeling. 

"Letters, letters of all sizes, colors, directions and kinds 
of chirography astonished the postmaster at Brunswick by 
their countless numbers, and the author began to feel the 
nation's pulse. 

"Friends applauded, remonstrated, or vociferously 
deprecated her course. Literary associates praised the 
technique of the story, but thought the subject ill-chosen. 
Abolitionists wrote with irrepressible enthusiasm. Poli- 
ticians angrily expressed their amazement that her hus- 
band should permit her to stir up the people. Slaveholders 
heaped reproaches upon her and badly spelled productions, 
which were taken with tongs by her husband and dropped 
almost unread into the fire."^ 

William Lloyd Garrison writes to Mrs. Stowe: 

"Since Uncle Tom's Cabin has been published, all the 
defenders of slavery have let me alone, and are spending 
their strength in abusing you. ' ' And Charles Dickens says : 

' ' Your book is worthy of any head and any heart that 
ever inspired a book. ' ' 

Charles Kingsley gives as his opinion: 

"Your book will do more to take away the reproach 
from your great and growing nation than many platform 
agitations and speechifyings. " 

One cause of the indisputed popularity of the book was 
its foundation upon truth. The Southerner called for facts 
— iproof, claimed that the book made ignorant and mali- 
cious misrepresentations; and to refute this, Mrs. Stowe 
published in 1853 the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin, "pre- 
senting original facts and documents upon which the story 



"Florine Thayer McCray, "The Life WorTc of the Author of 'U. T. C.,' " 
N. Y., 1889, p. 105ff. 



INTEODUCTION 21 

is founded, together with corroborative statements verify- 
ing the truth of the work." 

The Key was sought for almost as much as Uncle Tom, 
especially at the South, where the sales were remarkable — 
ninety thousand copies were published in the United States 
in one month. 

Mrs. Stowe also arranged the story for youthful 
readers under the title, A Peep into Uncle Tom's Cahin 
(1853), and in 1855 wrote an adaptation for the stage, en- 
titled The Christian Slave. 

Nor was the influence of Uncle Tom's Cabin con- 
fined to the United States. It crossed the seas, and within 
a year was scattered all over the world. It was translated 
and circulated in unprecedented numbers in every city, 
country and court of Europe ; and wherever it was read, it 
excited like abhorrence of the system it so vividly portrayed, 
kind sympathy with every effort for abolition, and aroused 
hearty good- will and earnest wishes for the new party of 
freedom. 

The number of translations has been variously esti- 
mated from twenty to forty languages and dialects. We 
find translations into at least twenty-one different lan- 
guages, as follows : Arabic; Armenian; Bohemian; Danish, 
two distinct-versions ; Dutch, three distinct versions and one 
for children — 14 separate editions; Finnish; Flemish; 
French,^ eleven distinct versions, two abridgements for 
children, and two dramatic adaptations; Hungarian, one 
complete version, one for children, and one versified abridge- 
ment; Illyrian, two; Italian, twelve versions and one for 
children (two editions of the Key) — 14 editions ; Portuguese; 
Polish; Romaic or modern Greek; Russian, two; Spanish, 
six (Spain, five; Mexico, one); Servian; Swedish, five for 
children, six distinct versions — at least sixteen editions; 
Wallachian, two; Welsh, three; Wendish; and in German 
at least seventy-five separate editions. 



' Bullen, 9 versions. Lorenz Cat. 23 editions. 



22 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 



II. German Translations. 

"Wir leben sehr rasch und vergessen mit einer wiinder- 
baren Schnelligkeit ; nur wenig Menschen erinnern sich noch 
an die grauliche Periode von 1852-9," says Julian Schmidt.^" 
But the time has come when the German people think with 
pride and gratitude of the men, who in 1848 strove for unity 
and democracy. One of the great problems of the nine- 
teenth century has been that of freedom and truth and their 
attainment. In the German Empire the period 1830-48 
marks the birth of a modern political life. Progress was 
rapid, as the air grew full of such watchwords as emanci- 
pation, humanity, public opinion, and the spectre of social 
revolution appeared on the horizon. 

'* Battle and storm advanced steadily and the liberal 
movement merged into an all-absorbing issue — on the one 
side monarchy, on the other the people ; on the one coercion, 
on the other freedom; on the one privilege, on the other 
law; on the one provincialism, and on the other national- 
ism."^^ But the end was discouragement, failure — not fail- 
ure from the broad standpoint of social progress, for a per- 
iod of reaction, stagnation and despair followed, which was 
only gradually overcome by the hopefulness of the younger 
generation. The influence of Schopenhauer, the father of 
pessimism, was heavy upon the minds of the people, and 
with eagerness and curiosity the book-hungry public sought 
any disclosure of the shame of social conditions. The news- 
papers, journals and books of the day were full of merciless 
criticism and discontent. 

It was this soured and despairing public that received 
Uncle Tom's Cabin m 1852, and read it with sympathy and 
enthusiasm, for it reflected the state of mind and conditions 
of society existent among the readers themselves. What 



^^ Julian Selimidt, ' ' GescMchte der deutschen Literatur v. Leihnis tis auf 
unsere Zeit," Vol. I, p. 587-8, Berl., 1896. 

"Kuno Francke, "Social Forces in German Literature," N. Y., 1899. 



GEEMAN" TKANSLATIONS 23 

would have been the result, if the book had reached Gerraany 
eight or ten years earlier? Who can estimate the flame of 
feeling that it would have produced? Yet we may believe, 
from the wide influence which we shall prove, that it helped 
to keep alive and deepen the desire for freedom and reform, 
until in the progress of social development, the hope was ful- 
filled. That the book was generally read in Germany is 
proved by the comments of the newspapers and literary 
journals, by the number of translations, and by the state- 
ments of the many people with whom we have conversed on 
the subject, especially of those whose relatives were in 
America. 

Mrs. Stowe was everywhere known as "die beriihmte 
Verfasserin von Onkel Tom's Hiitte, or ''die Humanistin", 
and her book was called the Evangelium der NegersMaven}^ 

The number of translations and editions is remarkable. 
We have found at least 75 separate editions in the German 
language; 41 distinct versions, to 16 of which the names of 
the translators are given ; 11 abridgements for children ; one 
dramatic adaptation, and one volume of illustrations. Be- 
sides these there are three editions in English, one of which 
is for school use, and one edition in French, also for schools, 
published in Germany. 

The description of the translator and his work in Hack- 
lander's Europdisches Sldavenleben is a fair picture of the 
demand for the book. The publisher cannot wait for the 
chapters to be translated, and the old man is obliged to 
work far into the night to satisfy his employer and to earn 
the pittance which supports his family. The publisher does 
not allow him the credit of having translated the story, and 
it appears only under the firm name. As this was fre- 
quently the case in publishing houses, we may infer that 
many of the translations of Uncle Tom, to which the name 
is lacking, are not simply copies of other translations, but 
the original work of some obscure translators. 



" Cf . Preussische Zeiiung, 1853, No. 24, Jan. 29. 



24 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN" IN GERMANY 

Among the translators we meet some well-known names, 
as Adolf Strodtmann, poet and critic; Dr. Max Schasler, 
critic and ''aesthetiker"; W. E. Drugulin, bookseller and 
publisher. Others are not so well-known, as Carl von der 
Boeck and Marie von Felseneck, juvenile writers, and Mar- 
garethe Jacobi, translator; and of many we have only the 
names. 

The translations are in general well done, and though 
in most cases no attempt is made to reproduce the negro 
dialect, the sequence of the story is kept throughout. The 
illustrations which are introduced are original in some of 
the editions, and in others are copied from those of the 
English or American editions. The abridgements for 
children, like that of Mrs. Stowe and those published in 
England, recount only those parts of the story which would 
appeal to a child, in a simple manner intended for entertain- 
ment and instruction. 

The list of translations is as follows : 

(1) 1852. Onhel Tom, oder Negerleben in den Nordameri- 
kanischen Sklavenstaaten, v. H. B. Stowe, nach der 
lOten Amerik. Aufl., iibersetzt v. W. E. Drugulin. Amer- 
iJcanische BiUiothek, Bd. 9-12, 4 Bde., 8° (194 ; 196 ; 206 ; 
215^). Leipzig, KoUmann. 

Wilhelm Edward Drugulin (1822-1879), Buch- u. Kunst- 
handler in Leipzic.^^ He also translated Hildreth's White 
Slave. 

(2) 1852. OnJcel Tom's Eiltte, tibersetzt von F. C. Nord- 
stern, 8°, 6 Hfte. 1. u. 2. Abdr. 1852-1853. Wien, 
Wenedikt. 

Nordstern also translated The White Slave. 

(3) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten des freien Nprdamerikas ; von H. B. 
Stowe, nach der lOten engl. original Ausg. freibearbei- 
tet V. Dr. Ungewitter. 240^. Leipzig, Hartleben. 



"Broekhaus, Conv. Lexikon. 



GERMAN" TRANSLATIONS 25 

Onkel Tom's Hiitte, etc., in deutscher Auffassungs- 
weise fiir deutsche Leser bearb, v. Ungewitter; 
3. Ausg., 8° m. 6. Illnstr. (Holzschn.), 240^ 
1853, Leipzig, Wien (gedr.) ; Hartleben's 
Verlags-Expedition. 
Hartleben advertises this edition in the AUgemeine 
Zeitung, Angsburg (Beil. 331, 26 Nov. 1852) as follows: 
"Die zweite Anflage von, Onkel Tom's 'Hiitte n. s. w. von 
Ungewitter iibersetzt. Die Verlagshandlung ging von der 
Ansicht aus dass dieses wahrhaft epochemachende Werk 
sich in Deutschland nur dann eines so glanzenden Erfolges 
wie in Amerika und England erfreuen konne, wenn es in 
einer dem dentschen Sinne und dem deutschen Geschmacke 
anpassenden Form; das heisst, ohne Schmalerung seines 
wahrhaft genialen wesentlichen Inhalts, jedoch mit 
Beseitigung aller — bios fiir das englische dem Schanplatze 
der Begebenheiten nahestehende Publikam berechneten — 
Weitschweifigkeiten — dargeboten wird; ebenso sehr war 
die Verlagshandlung iiberzeugt dass eine so schwierige 
die genaueste Vertrautheit mit den Verhaltnissen 
erfordernde Aufgabe nur von einem Manne der langere 
Zeit in Amerika gelebt, gliicklich gelost werden konne. Die 
Folge hat diese Ansicht glanzend gerechtf ertigt ; der 
rasche Absatz der sehr starken ersten Auflage dieser Bear- 
beitung binnen kaum mehr als 14 Tagen spricht wohl am 
unzweideutigsten fiir deren allgemeine Verstandlichkeit und 
Popularitat. ' ' 

(4) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, aus dem Engl. Allgemeine 
deutsche Volkshibliothek. Verlagshandlung des allge- 
meinen deutschen Volksschriftenvereins ; Bd. 4-6; 
Jahrg. 5; 3 Bde. 8° (219; 228; 203^). Berlin, Dessau. 

(5) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder Sklavenleben in der 
Eepublik Amerika; gr. 8°, 357^. Berlin, Janke. 

(6) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten Amerikas, aus dem Engl. 3 Aufl. 2 
Thle. gr. 8°, 524^ mit 6 Holzschn. Berlin, Albert Sacco. 



26 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

(7) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hutte, 3 Bde. 650^ Berlin, Spring- 
er's Verlag. 

(8) 1852. Onhel Tom's Hutte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten von Nordamerika mit 50 lUustr. 
(Holzsclm.) 1 Aufl. 558^ (m. eingedruckten Holzschn., n. 

15 Holzsclm. Taf.), gr. 8°, 1852. 2 Aufl. u. 3 Aufl., gr. 
8°, 1853. 4 Aufl. mit Anmerkungen. Vermehrte Aufl., 
1854. (XII und 420^) 8°. Leipzig, Weber. 

(9) 1852 Onkel Tom's HilUe, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten von Nordam. mit 40 Illus. Karlsruhe, 
Herder 'scb. Buchh. 

(10) 1852. Sklaverei in dem Lande der FreiJieit, oder das 
Leben der Neger in den Sklavenstaaten Nordamerikas ; 
Nach der 15 Aufl. v. Onkel Tom's Hutte, mit einem 
Vorworte. 4 Bde. 8°. (XVI 866^) ; dass. 4 Bde. 16°, 
508^ 1852; dass. 3 Aufl., 1853. Leipzig, D. Wigand. 

(11) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hutte, oder die Geschiclite eines 
christlicben Sklaven v. H. B. Stowe. 11 Bdcbn. 16°, 
1852-3. 

Bde. 1871-1881, das belletristisches Ausland, hg. Karl 
Spindler. Kabinetsbibliothek der class. Eomane aller 
Nationen. Stuttgart, Frankh. 

(12) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, Bde. 7-8, Neuer Haus-u. 
Familien-S chats; ErzaMungsbibliotliek fiir jedermann. 
2 Bde. 650^ Wittenberg, Molir. 

(13) 1852. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, Mannbeimer Unterhal- 
tungsblatt, Belletristische Beilage zum Mannbeimer 
Journal. 1852, Jabrg., 5, II, No. 246, 15 Okt. bis No. 
303, 21 Dec. 

(14) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder die Geschichte eines 
christlicben Sklaven, aus dem Engl, iibertragen v. L. 
Du Bois, 3 Thle. (176; 183; 312«). Stuttgart, Frankb. 
Tbe publisher of this edition advertises in the All- 
gemeine Zeitung, Augsburg (Ausserord. Beil. No. 351, 

16 Dec, 1852), as follows : 



GEKMAN" TRANSLATIONS 27 

" 'OnJcel Tom's Hutte/ u. s. w., aus dem Englischen 
iibertragen von L. Du Bois — preis 6 Kreuzer. 

'^Diese Ubersetzimg welche in obiger Ausgabe dem 
Publikum iibergeben wird, ist nnter alien bisher erscMe- 
nenen, die geistvollste nnd beste, weil sie aus der Feder 
eines Mannes stammt, der aufs innigste vertraut mit dem 
englischen und amerikanischen Volks- nnd Gesellschafts- 
leben aller Stande, den Beruf hatte di-e zahlreichen tJber- 
setzungs-Schwierigkeiten dieses bedeutenden Buches 
namentlich in seinen Volks- und Neger-Dialogen, welche 
ein grosser Teil der iibrigen Ubersetzer nach gewisser- 
massen, nicht eimnal richtig verstand, mit Leichtigkeit zu 
iiberwinden und das reiche Gemalde lebensvoller Charak- 
teristiken und spannender Situationen aufs treueste wie- 
derzugeben. ' ' 

(15) 1853. Oheim Tom's Hutte, oder das Leben bei den 
Niedrigen iibersetzt von H. R. Hutten, 8°. Boston 
(Cambridge), U. S. A. 

(16) 1853. OnJcel Tom's Hutte, oder Schilderungen aus 
dem Leben in den Sklavenstaaten Nordamerikas, nach 
der 35ten eng. Aufl. v. J. 8. Lowe. 2 Bde. 8°. (XI u. 
264; 224^.) Hamburg, Leipzig, Kittler. 

(17) 1853. ^ Onkel Tom's Hiltte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten Amerikas, aus dem Engl, mit 6 Holz- 
schn. 3 Bde. (210; 189; 160^). Berlin, Br audi s (Falken- 
berg&Co.) 

(18) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hutte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten Amerikas, aus dem Engl. 3 Bde. 8°, 
mit 4 Holzschn. (210; 189; 160^). Berlin (Davids 
Buchh.) (Wesselmann & Co.) 

(19) 1853. Onhel Tom's Hutte, oder Leiden der Negerskla- 
ven in Amerika von Mrs. Stowe. Im Auszuge fiir 
das deutsche Volk bearbeitet. 55^ m. 1 Titelbild 
(Holzschn.), 16°. Berlin, Lassar. 



28 UNCLE tom's cabin in geemany 

(20) 1853. Onhel Tom's Hiitte, oder Sklavenleben in den 
Freistaaten Amerikas, aus dem Engl. 3 Thle. 1 u. 2 
Anfl., 8° (644«). Berlin, Schnitzer. 

(21) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hutte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten von Amerika mit der Biogr. der Ver- 
fasserin nnd einer Vorrede v. E. Burritt. Vollstandige 
u. wohlfeilste Steriotypausg. nebst Portrait. 2 Bde. gr. 
8°(XVI448«). Leipzig, Friedlein. 

(22) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hutte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten von Amerika v. H. Stowe, geb. Beecher, 
nach 20 amerik. Ausg. aus dem Engl, nebst der neuen 
von der Verfasserin eigene fiir Europa geschriebenen 
Vorrede. Vollstandige u. s w. 1-10 Aufl. m. 16 
Holzschn. (XVI 326«.) 

[1-8 Aufl. 10 ngr.; 9 u. 10 Aufl. 15 ngr.] Leipzig, 
Friedlein. 

(23) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder Sklaverei im Lande 
der Freiheit. 3 Aufl. mit einer original Vorrede der 
Frau Verfasserin, und mit einer Einleitung iiber die 
Sklaverei. 16°, 4 Bde. (XX 508«). Leipzig, D. Wigand. 
This may be the same as No. 9 with new title. 

(24) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, nach dem Engl, fiir die 
reifere Jugend bearb. v. Mor. Gans mit 11 Abbildungen 
in Farbendruck. Bd. 3, Neues Lese-Cahinet fiir die 
reifere Jugend. 8°, 216^. Pesth, Heckemast's Verlag. 

Moritz Gans von Ludassy (Komorn, 1829-1886 Eeich- 
enau) was a writer of novels and short stories especially for 
young people. 

(25) 1853. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, fiir Kinder nach dem 
Engl. V. Aug. Hdrtel, 48^ mit eingedr. Holzschn. Kin- 
der erzdhlung en, — illustrirte fiir Sommertage u. Winter- 
dbende. Bd. 2. Leipzig, Haendel. 



GERMAN TRANSLATIONS 29 

(26) 1853. Ortkel Tom's Schicksal, Erzahlung fiir die 
Jugend. Fiir deutsche Jugend bearb. v. Max Schasler. 
2 Bdchn. 8° (IV 348«), 6 Colorlith. Hausbibliothek der 
Jugend, Bd. 1, 2. hg. v. Hasselberg. Berlin, Hassel- 
berg. 

Dr. Max Schasler [1819-1901 (?)] was a well-lmown 
"Aesthetiker" and founder of the Deutsche Kunst-Z eitung . 

(27) 1853. Onhel Tom's Eiitte, oder das Leben der 
Sklaven in Amerika, nach Harriet Beecher Stowe, fiir 
die Jugend bearb. v. Leopold Streich, 8°, 158^. Streich's 
Lesecahinet fur die Jugend. Berlin, Faudel. 

(28) 1853. OnJcel Tom's Hutte, Erzahlung fiir Kinder 
bearb. Neues Bilder- u. Lesebuch. gr. 4° m. 8 lUustr. 
in Tondr. 20^ (colorirten Lith. m. Titelvignette). 
Niimberg, Lossbeck. 

(29) 1853. Illustrationen zu Onkel Tom's Hutte, 16 Blat- 
ter u. Zeichnungen v. H, Anelay, m. d. Portrait v. H. 
Stowe, nebst einer Vorrede v. Elihu Burritt, einer Bio- 
graphie der Verf as serin, und erlaut. Amnerk. zu On- 
hel Tom's Hutte, 8°, 16^. Leipzig, Friedlein, Zieger. 

(30) 1853. Onhel Tom, Amerikan. Zeitgemalde mit 
Oesang u. Tanz in 3 Abthlgn. nebst einem Vorspiel, 
nach Stowe 's Onkel Tom's Hutte , von Therese v. 
Megerle. Theater-Repertoire, Ifg. 26. 37^, 10 ngr. 
Wien, Wallishauser's Druckerei. 

(31) 1854. Evangeline und Neger Tom — aus Onkel Tom's 
Hutte, ausgewahlt fiir die liebe Jugend in Haus u. 
Schule mit Vorwort v. Karl Mann, gr. 8° (VII 270«). 
Stuttgart, Quack. 

(32) 1864.1* Onkel Tom's Hiltte, oder Leben unter den 
Verstossenen, nach dem Engl, frei bearb. v. Adolph 
Strodtmann, gr. 8°, 271^ Philadelphia, U. S. A., 
Schaf er u. Koradi. 



" Heinzius, 1864, Kayser, 1874. 



30 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

It is probable that this translation first appeared in 
1853, of Mag. filr die Lit. des Auslandes (1853, No. 68, June 
7th). 

Adolf Strodtmann (1829-1879) sailed for America in 
1852 and opened a bookstore, publishing house and lending 
library in Philadelphia. This business he gave up in 1854. 
He published Die Locomotive, in which work he was aided 
by Otto V, Corvin. He translated skillfully, and in easy 
flowing language. He caught the spirit of the language 
and translated idiomatically. He is known as a poet and 
critic. 

(33) 1870. Tom's Hiltte, oder das Sklavenleben in Amer- 
ika, fiir die Jugend bearb. v. Wilh. Kammerer, mit 4 
Stahlst., 8°, 116^. Eegensburg, Manz. 

(34) 1875. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, frei nach dem Eng. v. A. 
Eltze, 8°, 296^ Berlin, Janke. 

(35) 1875-1879. Onhel Tom's Hiitte, oder Negerleben in 
dem Sklavenstaaten von Amerika aus dem Engl, 
libersetzt. Umversal Bibliothek, Eeclam jun. No. 961- 
965; 550^. Leipzig, Eeclam. 

(36) 1880. Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Erzahlung aus dem f ernen 
Westen fiir die Jugend bearb. v. Br. Hoffmann, m. 5 
farbendr. Illustr. nach orig. Zeichnungen v. C. Koch. 
gr. 8°, 218^. Leipzig, Drewitz. 

(37) 1880. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder das Sklavenleben der 
Schwarzen in Amerika. 

Bd. 36 Christliche Volksibliothek Altottling 
(Bayern). J. Lutzenberger. 

(38) 1881. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, nach dem Engl. Orig. neu 
bearbeitet. 8°, 320^ 1885, 8° (IV 320«). Berlin, 
Janke. 

(39) 1885. Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Erzahlung aus dem f ernen 
Westen libersetzt und bearbeitet v. C. v. Boeck mit 1 
farbendr. Illustr. nach orig. Aquarelle, v. Marie Koch, 
8°, 218^ Berlin, Drewitz. 



GEEMAN TEANSLATIONS 31 

C. V. der Boeck (1832-1893, Berlin) is well known as a 
writer of stories for the young, especially in "plattdeutsch." 
It is probable that he translated Uncle Tom's Cabin as early 
as 1880, as this date is given to the translation m the list 
of his works. 

(40) 1886. Onhel Tom's HiiUe, oder Negerleben in der 
Sklavenstaaten von Nord Amerika, neue Ausg. 336^. 
Familien Bihliothek Calwer. 3 Aufl., 1899. 320^ 
Calw. Vereinsbuchh., Stuttgart. 

(41) 1888. (1) Onkel Tom's Hutte, fur Jugend bearb. v. 
M. Jacohi. 8°, 172^; mit 4 farbendr. Bildern nach 
Aquarellen v. G. Grenz. 

(2) 1891, dass. nach Aquarellen v. G. Franz: 8°, 172^. 

(3) 1893, dass. mit 4 farbendr. Bildern v. W. Hoff- 
mann. 3 Aufl., 8°, 172^ 

(4) 1899. 

(5) 1901. 

(6) 1904, same as (3). 
Stuttgart, Thienemann. 

Margarethe Jacohi was bom in Konigsberg in Pr., and 
from 1884 has been a translator from the Italian, French 
and English. She lives in Cannstadt, where she has a 
"pension" for girls. The translation 1897 is a new work 
and not a new edition of the one in 1888. 

(42) 1894. Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Eine Erzahlung aus dem 
Negerleben in den Amerikanischen Sklavenstaaten. 

Nach H. B. Stowe fiir die Jugend geschrieben. tJber- 
setzt von Heinrich Her old, mit 5 farbendr. Bildern v. 
W. Schdfer. 12°. 1899, 12° (72^ m. 5 farbendr.). 
Durns Knahenbibliothek. Wesel, W. Diims. 

Heinrich Her old (1863- ) is a school inspector and 
writer of pedagogical works in Westphalia. He also edits 
the "Boys' Library." 



32 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEKMANY 

(43) 1897. Onhel Tom's Hiitte, neuiiheTsetzty. Margarethe 
Jacobi mit 112 Illustr. u. 1 farbendr. Bild. gr. 8°, 614^ 
geb. in Leinw. M. 7 — . Erschien auch in 20 Lfgn., a M. 
30—1898; 1899, 3 Aufl. Deutsche Verlagsanstalt, Stutt- 
gart. 

(44) 1897. Onkel Tom's Hutte, nach dem Engl. Original 
bearb. v. H. Trescher. 342% No. 1098-1102 Bihliothek der 
Gesammtliteratur des In- u. Auslandes. Halle, 0. 
Hendel. 

E. Trescher (1849-1891 (?) ) was a journalist and 
writer of short stories. 

(45) 1898. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, oder Negerleben in den 
Sklavenstaaten in Amerika. 8°, 240^. Illustriert v. 
Pet. Geh. Berlin, Fz. Schulze. 

1902, dass. m. 5 (3 farbendr.) Taf. Berlin, E. Gahl. 

(46) 1898. Onkel Tom's Hutte, fur die Jugend bearb. v. 
Marie v. Felseneck. 8°, (160% m. 4 farbendr.). Berlin, 
A. Weichert. 

Marie v. Felsenek und Wilhelm Forster are the 
pseudonyms used by Frl. Maria L. Mancke (Leip- 
zig, 1847 — ) in Berlin. She began her career as a teacher in 
Leipzic, then wrote sketches for the newspapers, and since 
1893 her greater works have appeared, all of which are 
juvenile literature. 

(47) 1898. Onkel Tom's Hiitte, nach der original Erzah- 
lung fiir die Jugend; v. Gustav Heine mit 5 autotyp. 
nach Originalen von Karl Miiller. gr. 8°, 222^. 

1903, neue Ausg. 8°, 208^ Berlin, H. J. Meidinger. 

(48) 1899. Onked Tom's Hiitte, fiir die Jugend bearb. v. 
Klaus Bernhard. 8°, 80^, m. 4 Farbendr. Stuttgart, 
G. "Wiese. 



GEKMAN TRANSLATIONS 33 

(49) 1900. Onkel Tom's Hutte, das weltberiilunte Buch 
iiber das Elend der Negersklaven (v. H. B. Stowe) ; 
neu iiber setzt v. Hildwig Andrae Massenausg. 12°, 
555^. Verlag der akadem. Buchh. W. Faber & Co. Ber- 
lin, Westend. 

(50) 1901. Onkel Tom's Hutte. Eine ErzaMimg fiir die 
Jugend nach H. B. Stowe, neu bearbeitet mit 4 Voll- 
bildern n. 18 Federzeichniingen v. Alb. Geyer. 8°, 239^. 
1904 neue Ausg. M. 2.50. 

1904 neue Ausg. Volksaufl. M. 1.50. Leipzig, Abel u. 
Miiller. 

(51) 1903. Onkel Tom's Hutte, unter Mitwirkung v. 
Munchgesang, neu bearbeitet v. 0. Hoffman. 8°, 124^, 
m. Abb. u. Farbendr. Stuttgart, W. Nitzsche. 

(52) 1904. Onkel Tom's Hutte, bearbeitet von G. Rei- 
chard. 8°, 223^, m. Abb. u. Farbendr. Berlin, Verlag 
Jugendbort. 

(53) 1904. Onkel Tom's Hutte, neu bearbeitet v. TJ. Ment- 
zel. 8°, 96^. Berlin, Verlag Jugendbort. 

(54) 1905. Onkel Tom's Hutte, frei nach dem Engl, bear- 
beitet V. E. V. Feilitzsch, 8°, 224^ Volksausg. M. 1.50. 
Prachtausg. Kunstdr. Beil. M. 2 — . 

Frl. Emmy v. Feilitzsch is a translator of English and 
French works in Augsburg. 

(55) 1906. Onkel Tom's Hutte, nach Harriet Beecher 
Stowe fiir die Jugend bearb. v. Rud. Reichardt. gr. 8°, 
24^, m. 5 farbendr. Berlin, Globus Verlag. 

(56) 1906. Onkel Tom's HUtte, nach Harriet Beecher 
Stowe fiir die Jugend bearb. m. 4 Bunt.- u. 32 Text- 
Bildern v. Willy Planck iiber s. v. Petersen {Geo. Pay- 
sen). 8° (VII 150^), dass. m. 32 Textbildem v. W. 
Planck, Volksausg. 8° (VII-150«)^ 2 Aufl. 1906. Stutt- 
gart, Loewe. 



34 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

(57) 1907. Onkel Tom's Hiltte (v. Harriet Beecher 
Stowe), oder Negerleben in den Sklavenstaaten v. 
Amerika; bearb. v. Otto Zimmermann. 8°, 298^. Leip- 
zig, 0. Spamer. 

(58) 1908. Onkel Tom's Hiltte, v. H. B. Stowe iibersetzt 
und fiir die Jugend bearbeitet v. Willi. Lehr. Mit Titel- 
bild V. E. Fiedler, kl. 8°, 96^ In 1001 ErzdMungen 
fiir Jung unci Alt. Berlin, H. Hilger. 

Editions in other languages published in Germany: 

(1) 1852. Uncle Tom's Cabin, by Harriet Beecher-Stowe, 
with a new preface expressly written for this edition, 
authorized for the continent of Europe. 2 vols., No. 243, 
244. Collection of British Authors. Leipzig, B. 
Tauchnitz. 

(2) 1889. Uncle Tom's Cabin, a Tale of Life among the 
Lowly. 8°, 382^. Leipzig, Gressner u. Schramm. 

(3) 1895, 1898, 1902. Uncle Tom's Cabin, Modern English 
for Schools. Biogr. Sketch and Notes, by Heinr. Saure. 
vocab. (also Little Lord Fauntleroy, by F. H. Burnett). 
Vol. I of Modern English Autliors, ed. by H. Saure. 8°. 
Berlin, F. A. Herbig. 

(4) 1853. Abrege de I'Histoire de I'oncle Tom a 1 'usage de 
la jeunesse. 212^. Vol. XXIV. Bibliotheque petite 
francaise au choix des meilleurs ouvrages de la litera^ 
ture moderne a l' usage de la jeunesse, suivi d'un ques- 
tionaire par Mme. A. Bree. Leipzig, Baumgartner. 

Translations of the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin: 

(1) 1853. Schliissel zu Onkel Tom's Hiltte, enthaltend die 
Original-Tatsachen und Beweisstiicke, auf welche die 
Erzahlung gegrundet ist, nebst neuen Darlegungen, 
welche die Wahrheit des Werkes bekraftigen. Aus dem 
Engl. 8°, 4 Thle. (XXX, 591^). Berlin, Duncker u. 
Humblot. 



NOTICES AND REVIEWS 35 

(2) 1853. Schlussel zu Onkel Tom's Hutte, u. s. w. Leip- 
zig, Fock. 

(3) 1853. Schlussel zu Onkel Tom's Hutte, u. s. w. Bd. 5. 
Neue Volksbibliothek, hg. v. Aug. Schrader. 8°. Leip- 
zig, Friedlein. 

(4) 1853. Schlussel zu Onkel Tom's Hutte, u. s. w. 8°, 
448^. Leipzig, Zieger. 

1853. Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. Vols. 266-267. Col- 
lection of British Authors. Leipzig, Tauchnitz. 

III. Notices and Eeviews. 
1. Circulating Libraries' and Publishers' Notices. 

^'Wer hatte nicht Stowe's Onkel Tom's Hiltte gelesen! 
Das Aufsehen welches das Buch gemacht ist einzig!"^^ 
This seems to be the opinion of the majority of the news- 
papers and journals of Germany. The lending libraries 
advertised the book in their latest accession. 

''Leihbibliothek von Gustav Oehler, Onkel Tom's 
Hutte."^^ 

''Leihbibliothek von Wilhelm Meek in Konstanz, Onkel 
Tom's HUtte."^'^ 

One reader waited impatiently for another to finish, 
and the volumes soon became so dilapidated that new ones 
were bought to replace them. Hardly any novel has had so 
great a popularity as this — surely no American novel — is 
the testimony of librarians. Booksellers and publishers say 
that new editions could not be printed rapidly enough to 
supply the demand. An average of 4,000,000 to 5,000,000 
books were produced in Germany in a year says Unterhal- 
tungen am Hduslichen Herd,^^ and in 20-25,000 copies was 
Uncle Tom scattered. 



" Allgem. Zeitung, Augsb., 1852, No. 351, Dec. 

" Intell. Blatt d. fr. Stadt. FJcft. 2 Beil. No. 237, 6 Oct., 1852. 

" Konstanzer Zeitung, 1852, Beil. 307. 

1" 1854, No. 46, p. 735, 



36 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

Hartleben in Leipzig gives to the public the following 
notice : 

' ' Diesen ausserordentlichen Erf olg konnten wir bei der 
ungeheueren Concnrrenz von deutschen Ausgaben nicht vor- 
sehen, weshalb mehrere Bestellungen nicht expedirt werden 
konnten. Aus dieser Verlegenheit hat nns die Sommer 'sche 
Druckerei in Wien geholfen, welche diese zweite Ausgabe 
(15 Bogen) binnen 3 Tagen durch Anstellung von 10 Setz- 
ern in Beihilfe eines Teiles ihrer 8 durch Dampfkraft ge- 
triebenen Schnellpressen hergestellt hat. Es ist nun wieder 
ein hinreichender Vorrat auf unserem Leipziger Lager, um 
jede Bestellung sogleich expediren zu konnen."^^ 

In "E'wro^a"2o we read that "Onkel Tom's Hiitte wird 
bald in den Handen aller Menschenfreunde sein"; and We- 
ber, the publisher, in Leipzig advertises the book as the 
most famous of the day.^^ A notice of the Tauchnitz edition 
expresses the usual wonder at the great popularity of the 
book, and adds : 

''Es versichert uns ein glaubwlirdiger Buchhandler aus 
der zuverlassigsten Quelle, dass in Deutschland einige zwan- 
zig Ubersetzungen erschienen oder angekiindigt sind. Et- 
was zu diesem Erfolg tragt freilich die krankhafte Neigung 
zu graulichen Dingen bei ; im AUgemeinen aber hat er doch 
eine solide Grundlage; er beruht auf einer gerechten sitt- 
lichen Entriistung. "^^ 

Of the two translations into German, which were pub- 
lished in America, the one by Adolf Strodtmann is the best, 
from the point of view of language — and naturally so, when 
we consider that Strodtmann was a critic and poet as well 
as translator ; but it was not recognized by Mrs. Stowe, be- 
cause it was made without her permission. Thus it is evi- 



" Allgem. Zeitung, Augsb. 1852, Beil. 331, 26 Nov. 
^» 1852, No. 92, 11 Nov., p. 735. 
""■Allgem. Zeitung, 1852, No. 495, Dee. 25, p. 416. 
=^ Grenzhoten, 1852, IV, p. 317. 



NOTICES AND KEVIEWS 37 

dent that the * ' Schwarmerei fiir Uncle Tom's Cahin^', as 
Rudolf GottschalP^ calls the popularity of the book, also 
affected the Germans in America. 

2. Newspaper Comments and Critical Reviews. 

In the perusal of the newspapers of the years 1852 and 
following, we find a host of short notices of Uncle Tom's 
Cabin. Nearly every discussion of social conditions, in 
which a reference is made to slavery, mentions the book. 
The notices in English papers were translated and copied 
over and over again. Eeports of the great sale and demand 
of the book, sketches of the author's life, descriptions of her 
personal appearance, and notes on her journey to England 
and the Continent abound. 

''Die Verfasserin von Onhel Tom's Hiitte kommt zum 
Besuch nach England. Wenn sie auch einen Abstecher nach 
dem Continent macht, wollen ihre sammtliche tJbersetzer 
als Vorspann fiber den Canal dienen ! "^^ 

Some of the notices are favorable and appreciative, 
some sarcastic and ironical, and all recognize the power of 
the writer and the influence of her work. An example of 
both favorable and unfavorable criticism will serve to illus- 
trate this, as follows : 

''Vielleichl sind die Grausamkeiten, welche in Onhel 
Tom's Hiltte berichtet, vereinzelt da und dort vorgekom- 
men, aber die blind-fantastische Schriftstellerin hat daraus 
ein literarisches Monstrum geballt, und in eine verhangniss- 
voUe Frage die giftigste Bitterkeit gebracht."^^ 

In an entirely different tone is the following short 
criticism : 

''Das Buch ist politisch-geistlicher Tendenz. Die un- 
geheuere Sensation welche diese Schilderungen der Greuel 
des Sklaventums in den freien Vereinigten Staaten machen 



=^ Blatter fur lit. Unterh., 1853, I, No. 2, Jan. 8, p. 35. 

2^ Preuss. Zeitung, 1853, No. 10, Jan. 13. 

=« Mannh. Unterh. Blatt., 1855, II, No. 295, 299, Dec. 12, 17. 



38 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEKMANY 

musste, ist erklarlich und entschuldigt den Mangel an Zu- 
sammenhang, in dem es fast mehr aneinander gelegte als 
ineinander verflochtene Scenen bietet. * * * ^^i^ kon- 
nen es in jedes Haus empfehlen, da es in echt cliristlichem 
Geist geschrieben ist. Evangeline und ihren Tod kann man 
ein wirklich cbristliclies Bild nennen, ' ' 

The Mannheimer Unterhaltungshlatt published the 
story as a serial from 1852 No. 246 Oct. 15, to No. 303 Dec. 21, 
with the following announcement : ' ' Wir teilen hiermit un- 
sern Lesern den beriihmtesten Eoman mit, welcher seit vie- 
len Jahren erschien. Kein Buch hat in diesem Jahrhunderte 
solches Aufsehen erregt wie dieser amerikanische Eoman, 
der an Naturwahrheit alle anderen Eomane libertrifft. ' ' 

We could continue to quote notices and references to 
the author and her work, but these examples suffice to show 
how much the public mind was occupied with the story and 
how deep an impression it made. 

Revieivs of Uncle Tom's Cabin appeared in the literary 
journals and magazines shortly after its appearance in 
translation, and they present some interesting criticism on 
the subject, its treatment and the characters. 

Eudolf Gottschall in Blatter fur literarische Unterhal- 
tung,^^ criticizes the book fairly from the point of view of 
literary value : 

'^ Uncle Tom's Cabin kann wenigstens keinen Anspruch 
darauf machen ein Kunstwerk zu sein and ein vorwiegend 
asthetisches Interesse zu beschaftigen und zu befriedigen. 
* * * Die Handlung hat sogar keine concentrischen 
Kreise, keinen Mittelpunkt; es sind zwei Handlungen die 
parallel nebeneinander herlaufen." * * * Whereupon 
he sketches the story and adds : 

''Die Fabel ist spannend. Mrs. Stowe versteht zu er- 
zahlen und fiir ihre Gestalten zu interessiren. " 

The treatment of the slave-question he discusses in the 
following : 



' 1852, No. 2, p. 35-6, Jan. 8. 



NOTICES AND EEVIEWS 39 

''Eine Frau bemachtigt sich dieser Frage, schildert in 
lebendiger, dramatisclier Wirklichkeit das Leben der 
Sklaven, riihrt und ergreift durch geschickt angelegte Sce- 
nen,entwickeltmit einer an Eaffinement grenzenden Scharfe 
Alles was die Gemiither der Sache der Unterdriickten 
giinstig stimmen und gegen das harte Gesetz nnd seine oft 
rolien Vollstrecker emporen kann, * * * Mrs. Stowe 
hat das Anathem der Humanitat auf die Sklavengesetze 
geschleudert ; sie hat ihr Werk mit der Begeisterung eines 
edeln Herzens geschrieben. ' ' 

In conclusion Gottschall gives as his opinion of the 
book: 

"Ein Baustein zu sein am Tempel der Humanitat, das 
ist das dauernde Verdienst des Uncle Tom's Cabin und in 
diesem Sinne mag es uns in Deutschland willkommen sein." 

The Allgemeine Zeitung discusses the subject of 
slavery in America and speaks with enthusiasm of Uncle 
Tom. 

''Wir haben seit langer Zeit kein Buch gelesen das uns 
so tief ergriffen, so anhaltend gefesselt hatte wie, Uncle 
Tom's Cabin von Mrs. H. B. Stowe; wir iibersehen so 
manche Unebenheiten der Sprache iiber der tiefen Natur- 
wahrheit, welche in diesem Buche von Anfang bis zu Ende 
waltet. Die Abolitionisten-Partei in den Vereinigten 
Staaten kann der Verfasserin eine Biirgerkrone votiren; 
denn eine machtigere Bundesgenossin als Mrs. H. B. Stowe 
und ihren Eoman hatte sie nicht bekommen konnen. Dieser 
Roman verdient die ungeheuere Popularitat die er so rasch 
in zwei Weltteilen, in Europa wie in seiner Heimat erlangt 
hat; denn aus dem Leben gegriffen, greift er wieder tief ins 
Leben hinein. ' ' 

Of the characters the critic says : 

''Welch eine der grossartigsten Dramas wiirdige Hel- 
dengestalt ist dieser Georg ! " 



Allgem. Zeitung, Augsb. 1852, Beil. No. 281, 7 Oct., 282, 8 Oct. 



40 TJlSrCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

And of St. Claire: 

"Dieser Character ist ausserordentlicli instructiv; wie 
uberhaupt die meisterhafte Schilderung des Lebens auf St. 
Clare's iippigreichen Besitznngen beweist wie die Ver- 
fasserin mit der feinsten und umfassendsten Kenntniss der 
Menschen und der Gesellschaft im allgemeinen, zugleich 
ein Fond von Phantasie und Poesie vereinigt, der sie den 
bedeutedsten Dichtern der nenern Zeit an die Seite stellt." 

Of Eva and Topsy : 

''Welch' eine reizende Gestalt ist diese kleine 'Evan- 
gelina', ein wirklicher Evangelist in Kinderkleidchen ! 

* * * Ein Seitenstiick zn diesem atherischen Kinde, bil- 
det die gnomenartige Gestalt der kleinen Topsy. Sie ist die 
umgekehrte Mignon. ' ' 

Finally the reviewer concludes, after remarks upon the 
question of slavery, with the words : 

''Dieser Eoman kommt nns wie ein Mahnzeichen der 
neuen an die alte Welt vor. ' ' 

In Minerva^^ we find a review, over fifty pages in 
length, which discusses in detail political affairs in Amer- 
ica and relates the story of the book with some criticism. 
Of the general impression of the book the writer says : 

''Es fehlt dem Bnche der Mrs. Stowe an Einheit 

* * * aber was kiimmert sie sich um Knnst, Literatur, 
Einheit der Composition; ihr Buch ist ganz anderer Zwecke 
wegen geschrieben. ' ' 

Another critic says :2® 

''Mrs. Stowe wird ims fortan schon ein herzgewonnener 
Name bleiben, weil ihr Buch so ausserordentlich reich ist an 
den lieblichsten Charakterzugen und den rtihrendsten Situ- 
ationen. * * * gie hat verstanden der ganzen gesitte- 
ten Welt, die Leiden der Neger an's Herz zu legen." 

One critic says Mrs. Stowe does not solve the problem 



*» Minerva, ein Journal fiir GeschicMe, Politih n. Literatur, v. Dr. Friedrich 
Bran, Jena, 1852, IV, p. 267-321. 

''Unterh. am Edusl. Herd, Gntzkow, 1853, No. 7, p. 1 flf. 



NOTICES AND EBVIEWS 41 

whicli she vividly describes — ^bnt others agree that this was 
not her purpose.^^ 

Two reviews consider the book more a hindrance than 
a help to the cause of anti-slavery; one calls the author a 
writer of an ' ' empfindsamen Roman" and the whole work 
* ' empfindendes Stowethum"; the other says she tears open 
the half -healed wounds of the South instead of pouring oil 
upon them;^^ yet neither can deny her talent as shown in 
the work. 

A writer for the Freiburger Zeitung^^ gives a different 
opinion of the book : 

''Das Buch ist aus einem edlen, frommen Prauen- und 
Mutterherzen hervorgegangen * * * und es ist eins der 
erhebendsten Zeichen der Zeit, dass ein solches Buch sich 
rasch einen so universellen Leserkreis sichern konnte. Nur 
eine Frau und — abgesehen davon dass es sich zunachst una 
amerikanische Zustande handelt — vielleicht nur eine Ameri- 
kanerin, die sich auf einer f esten religiosen Basis mit um so 
grosser er Sicherheit und Unabhangigkeit bewegen kann, 
mochte das Buch haben schreiben konnen." 

The general opinion of all the reviewers and critics is / 
that the book is unique, and because of that fact and because i ^^ 
of its political and social ''tendenz" it was bound to be circu- 1 
lated and read, and it left behind a picture of the black race, ■ 
which could not be banished. The negro characters are con- 
sidered by all well drawn, and to form a ''gallery of black 
faces ".^^ Those of the slave traders are wondered at and 
by some thought to be unusual, but their truth to nature is 
not doubted. Mr. Shelby and Mr. St. Clare are recognized 
as types of slave owners in the South, who had not the 
moral courage to free their slaves. Mrs. St. Clare is thought 
to be a type of woman not restricted to the Southern States 
of America, but found in every circle of society. Miss 



«* Morgenhlatt fur geUldete Leser, 1853, No. 19, p. 449-451, Mar. 8. 
'^ Neue Preuss. Zeitung, 1852, No. 279, Dec. 1. 
^"1853, No. 52, 2 Mar., p. 205-6, "Frau B. St. u. ihre Familie." 
^ Gottschall, Bl. f. lit. UnterJi., 1853, No. 2, p. 35 ff. 



42 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

Ophelia is the Puritan. Uncle Tom is the negro preacher, 
while little Eva is dwelt upon by all as a poetical figure — a 
''Mignon", and Topsy as her opposite. The broadminded 
and intelligent readers recognized the power of the book in 
the cause of freedom, while those soured by discouragement 
and disappointment regarded it jealously as an intruder, 
and criticised the public taste ; but the public, sympathetic 
and liberty-loving, felt the deep earnestness of purpose of 
the writer, which appealed to their best motives. 

IV. ''Uncle Tom's Cabin'', in Poetry and Music. 

A novel which has great circulation and popularity, fre- 
quently has influence which shows itself in further develop- 
ment in poetry, music or the drama. 

In the Badische Landeszeitung, 1853, No. 47, February 
25, we find the following verses : 

"Hat es je solche Kinder gegeben, wie Eva? Ja ; doch 
ihre Namen stehen immer auf Grabmalerei ! " — Onkel Tom's 
Miltte. 

1. Evangeline ! tausend, tausend Grlisse 
Send' ich Dir nach in Deine Lichtgefilde; 
Mein Herz, verweilend gern bei Deinem Bilde, 
Erkennt und liebt in jedem Zug Luise ! 

2. Du Wesen eins, der fleckenlosen, reinen, 
Die eingehiillt in iiberird'sche Schone — 
So duftig sind und zart dass alle Tone 

Und Farben dieser Welt nicht wiirdig scheinen ; 

3. Sie zu besingen, oder sie zu malen — 
Erscheinung voller Hohheit, wie voU Siisse, 
Evangeline Du und Du Luise ! 

Umgeben nun von ew'ger Glorie Strahlen. 

4. Luise, theures Kind Du meiner Seele ! 
Evangeline, Kind der fernen Zone, 

Ihr, liebend nun vereint vor Gottes Throne — 
Zu meinen Engeln ich Euch Beide wahle. 



■ UNCLE TOM 's CABIN IN POETKY AND MUSIC 43 

5. Luise Du und Du Evangeline, 

Aus Liclit iind Duft gewobene Gestalten, 
Die arnie Erde konnte Eucli nicht halten, 
Sie — aller Sclionheit, alles GMcks Euine! 

6. ^ir weinen und wir klagen; denn wir nennen 
Es sterben, wenn ein Engel zielit von hinnen, 
Ach ! an der Aussenwelt liang-t unser Sinnen — 
Wie soUten wir denn Enren Himmel kennen? 

In the "Fraukfurter Theater Almanacli, herausgegeben 
von Ernst Gotzler fiir 1854, Frankfurt am Main", we find a 
humorous poem, by Moritz Gottlieb Sapliir (1795-1858), 

entitled 

OnJcel Tom's Hiltte. 

Heisa, juchheisa ! Heisasasa ! 

Da sind wir im gottlichen Amerika ! 

Wandert hin, wandert hiniiber, wandert aus ! 

Dort lebt man frei, dort lebt man im Saus ! 

Dort gibt's keine Haslinger, keinen Stock! 

Dort gibt's keinen Priigel, keinen Block; 

Dort braucht man keinen Heimatsschein, 

Dort regiert bios die — die Peitsche all ein! 

Welch' freies Yolk! "Welcher Schwung! 

Die Peitsche schwingt dort Alt und Jung! 

Das ist ein Volk ! so frei und so brav ! 

Mit Fiissen getreten wird nur — der SMav'! 

Das ist ein Volk! dort gibt's Menschenrecht! 

Mit Fiissen getreten wird nur — der Knecht ! 

Wie schmeckt dem freien Mann' die Zigarre im Mund; 

Wenn er den Sklaven dabei ziichtigt wie den Hund, 

Dem Nasenstiiber entflieht einzig der Deutsche; 

Und findet dort driiben lieblich — die Peitsche! 

Of the literary quality of these verses we will not speak. 
They simply show the wide-spread interest in the book and 
its subject. 

The following ballad, entitled Elisa, by Georg Linley, 
may be a translation from Bnglish,^^ but we believe it to be 
original in this form : 



^*mustr. Zeitung, 1852, II, No. 491, p. 349, Nov. 27. 



t^ 



44 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEEMANY 

1. Die Mutter, ihr Kind im Arme, 
Springt verzweifelnd in den Fluss ; 
Das Knablein ihren Hals umschlingt, 
Das Eis kracht unterm Fuss ; 
Die wilden Wogen rauschen schrill, 
Doeh vom Geschick bedroht 

Dass man das Kind ihr rauben will, 
1st siisser ihr der Tod, 
1st siisser ihr der Tod. 

Refrain : Sie weiss, dass Gott im Himmel thront 
Und Er sie nicht vergisst, 
XJnd Mutterlieb' im Herzen wohnt, 
Wiewol sie Sklavin ist. 
Und Mutterlieb' im Herzen wohnt, 
Wiewol sie Sklavin ist. 

2. Ohnmachtig, wanken Schritts 

Erreicht sie das erwiinschte Land ; 
Ein heisser Thranenstrom bezeigt, 
Dass sie an sicheren Strand. 
Sie drtickt ihr Knablein an ihr Herz — 
Doch wohin kann sie nun? 
Wo findet sich ein Freund? Schmerz, 
Wo soil die Arme ruh'n? 
Wo soil die Arme ruh'n? 
Refrain — as above. 

This ballad is given with the music in the lUustrirte 
Zeitung, and is advertised by Weber in Leipzig as one of 
the "Gesdnge zu OnJcel Tom's Hutte, Lieder und Balla- 
den mit Pianofortebegleitung von Georg Linley. Inhalt: 
1, Elisa; 2, Georg; 3, Evangeline; 4, Eva. Wie die Bilder 
zu diesem die ganze civilisirte Welt aufregenden Romane 
die Gestalten und Scenen desselben illustriren, so diese Lie- 
der, die Gefuhle. Der Componist hat damit nicht als ge- 
lehrter Musiker glanzen; er hat die einfachen aber tiefen 
Empfindungen des Naturmenschen im Volkston ausdriicken 
woUen, und das ist ihm vortrefflich gelungen. Wer nur 
etwas Stimme und Musikkenntniss hat, kann die Melodien 
vom Blatt singen; wer nur etwas Klavier spielt, kann die 



UNCLE TOM's cabin ON THE STAGE 45 

Begleitimg ebenso leicht dazu ausfiiliren. Alle aber, die 
diese Lieder horen, miissen auf s tiefste davon ergriffen 
werden. Wie der Eoman in einer bisher beispiellosen Weise 
sich bereits verbreitet hat, imd die Tausende von Neuer- 
schienenen Exemplaren im Augenblicke wieder von dem 
Publikum verscblnngen werden, so werden auch diese Lie- 
der dazu ihres bedentenden Interesses, ihrer leichten Aus- 
fiihrlichkeit nnd ihres tiefen, in's Herz dringenden Aus- 
drucks wegen eine Verbreitung finden, wie wohl anch im 
Gebiete der Musik noch kein Beispiel vorhanden sein 
mochte. ' ' 

These ballads show to what extent the interest of the 
public was given to Uncle Tom. Not only in ballad form 
was music used to illustrate Uncle Tom — or perhaps in this 
case Uncle Tom was an illustration to the music! F. 
L. Schubert, a writer of popular music, published three 
''polkas" entitled, 1, Topsy, I came from Alabama; 2, Elisa, 
When I libd in Tennessee; 3, Chloe, Now niggers listen to 
me; and we find them also advertised by "Weber in 
Leipzig.^^ 



V. "Uncle Tom^s Cabin", on the Stage. 
1. In German Theaters in America. 

Uncle Tom's Cabin has been frequently dramatized, 
and has been presented upon the stage in every leading city 
in America for over fifty years, and by some of the most 
famous American actors and actresses. Even now some 
five hundred actors live by this play alone, and nothing in- 
dicates a cessation of this marvelous popularity, though, 
perhaps, it does not attract exactly the same class of people 
that it did in the earlier days.^^ 

The German dramatization by Megerle was presented 



^ Illustr. Zeitung, 1853, II, No. 542, p. 172-3, Sept. 10. 

^"^ Fifty Years of 'Uncle Tom,' " b7 F. 0. Arnett, Munsev's Mag., 1902, 
p. 897-902. 



46 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

in German theaters in the United States, as their records 
show. For example, in Philadelphia the following presenta- 
tions are recorded :^'^ 

1856— May 31. D. N. T. Melodeon, 201 Chestnut 
Street. Stowe-Birch-Pfeiffer, Onkel Tom's Hutte. 

1857— March 23. D. N. T. Stowe-Megerle, Onkel 
Tom's Hiitte. 

1858 — September 15, 16. V olkstheater , 215 Coates 
Street. Stowe-Megerle, Onkel Tom's Hutte. 

1864— April 27, 28. Philadelphia Stadttheater, between 
Fourth and Fifth Street, on Callowhill Street. Stowe- 
Megerle, Onkel Tom's Hiitte. 

1874— February 23, 25; 1875, March 1. Deutsches 
Theater in der Turner Halle. Stowe-Megerle, Onkel Tom's 
Hutte. 

1879 — May 8, 9. Germania Theater. Stowe-Megerle, 
Onkel Tom's Hiitte. 

2. In Germany. 

There are at least five distinct dramatizations of Uncle 
Tom's Cabin in German, and probably more adaptations. 
The only one published was the work of Therese von 
Megerle, which appeared in Wien, 1853. She was the writer 
of plays and short stories, Therese Megerle von Miihlfeld 
(Pressburg, 1813-1865, Wien).^^ 

Notices of this dramatization appear in December, 
1852,2^ and it is probable that it was ready for stage use 
before its publication. 

The following is a list of the presentations of Uncle 
Tom's Cabin in Germany, gathered from the study of 
theater advertisements and almanacs.^*' 



^' Lewis, The German Stage in Philadelphia (in mss.), Prof. M, D. Learned, 
Univ. of Penna. 

^Pataky, Lex. deu. Frauen d. Feder, Berlin, 1898. 

^^Fkt. Intell. Blatt, 3 Bail. 1852, No. 308, Dec. 29. Grenzioten, 1852, IV, 
p. 479. 

^A. Heinrieh, Deu. Biihnen-Almanach. 



UNCLE TOM's cabin ON THE STAGE 47 

1852-1853. 

1. Aachen, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hutte. Novitat. 

2. Augsburg, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiitte^^ 

3. Ballenstedt, Herzogliches Hoftheater vereinigt mit 
dem Stadttheater in Halberstadt. Onkel Tom's Hiltte. 
Novitat. 

4. Berlin, Konigstadtisches Theater, Charlottenstr. 90. 
Here the dramatization by G. Dankwardt and W. Kahleis — 
dramatische GemMde mit Gesang in vier Aden, with music 
by Hauptner, was presented seven times, according to the 
Neue Preussische Zeitung; and another adaptation en- 
titled Barbier und Neger, oder Onkel Tom in DeutscJiland, 
Posse mit Gesang in zwei Acten von Ernst Nonne ; also with 
music by Hauptner was advertised once. 

A critic speaks of the former dramatization as follows : 
^^ Onkel Tom's Hiltte ist ein sehr schwacher Eoman, 
aber es ist eine interessante, wenn auch eine unerfreuliche 
Schrift, und es fragt sich, ob es iiberhaupt wohlgetan, sol- 
chen Stoff auf die Biihne zu bringen. Da indess die riistige 
Tatigkeit der Abolitionisten-Partei dem Buch auch in 
Europa die weiteste Verbreitung verschafft hat, so konnte 
die Dramatizierung nicht ausbleiben, und wir miissen zu- 
geben, dass die Arbeit der Herren Danckwardt und Kahleis 
keine ungeschickte ist. Aus ihren eigenen Mitteln haben 
die Bearbeiter den Berliner Pelzhandler, Fritz Griibler, hin- 
zugetan, aber die wirkliche poetische Figur im Roman der 
Mme. Stowe, Evangeline, fehlt in der dramatischen Bear- 
beitung. "^^ 

5. Berlin, '^^ Vorstadtisches Theater — Onkel Tom's 
Hutte. Novitat. 

6. Bremen, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiltte. Novi- 
tat. 



«^1852, No. 300 bis 304, 1852, No. 1-7, 11-12, Dec. 25-Jan. 15. 
** Neue Preuss. Zeitung, 1853, No. 5, Jan. 7. 
"Europa, 1853, No. 5, p. 32. 



48 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

7. Brunn, Konigl. stadtisches Theater — Onkel Tom's 
Hiitte. Novitat. 

8. Cohlenz, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hutte. 

9. Danzig, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Ilutte. Novitat. 

10. Elbing, Stadttheater, vereinigt mit dem Stadtthea- 
ter zu Marienhurg — Onkel Tom's Hutte. Novitat. 

11. Frankfurt am Main, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom. 
Schauspiel in 4 Abteilungen, frei bearbeitet von Olfers.^^ 

This dramatization seems to have been presented in 
Frankfurt only once with the result that, in the words of a 
critic, ''am Schlusse des Stiickes hat sich das Publikum in 
zwei Lager geteilt und wahrend die eine Partei die Mit- 
glieder hervorrief , zischte und pfiff die andere. "VVenn iiber- 
haupt der Roman Onkel Torn sich zu einer Biihnenbearbei- 
tung eignet, so miissen wir der uns hier gebotenen Bear- 
beitung jedenfalls hier den Vorzug vor den Anderen geben, 
da sie biihnengewandt und mit kundiger Hand gearbeitet 
ist, und die Hauptmomente des Romans in kurzen Skizzen 
in gedrangter Kiirze uns vorfiihrt. Wir glauben dass trotz 
der von einigen Wenigen gemachten Demonstrationen On- 
kel Tom ein fiir die Direction ganz ergiebiges Sonntags- 
stiick werden diirf te. ' '^*'' 

12. Freiburg, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom. Schauspiel 
von Dr. Olfers.^'^ 

13. Funfkirchen, Stadtisches-privilegirtes Theater — 
Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Schauspiel. 

14. Gorlitz, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Novi- 
tat. 

15. Gross-Beezkerek, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiit- 
te. Novitat. 

16. Hamburg, Vereinigte Theater — Onkel Tom's Hiit- 
te. Novitat. 



^FM. Theater Almanack, hg. v. Ernst Gotzler, 1854; Fkt. Konv.-Blatt, 
1853, No. 42, 43, 44, Feb. 17, 19, 21; Fkt. Intell.-Blatt, 1853, 4 Beil., No. 41, 
42, 45. 

*' Fkt. Intell.-Blatt, 1853, 8 Beil., No. 45, Feb. 23. 

« Freib. Zeitung, 1853, No. 43, Feb. 19. 



UNCLE TOM's cabin ON THE STAGE 49 

The adaptation for the stage used here was by Wall- 
heim, according to Europa.'^^ 

17. Herniannstadt, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom. Melo- 
dram. 

18. Kaschau, Stadttheater — Onkel Toyn. Novitat. 

19. Klagenfurt, Standisches Theater — Onhel Tom. 
Novitat. 

20. Komgsherg m Preussen, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom. 
Novitat. 

21. Laibach, Standisches Theater, verbunden mit dem 
Theater in Triest — Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Schauspiel. 

22. Leipzig, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Schau- 
spiel.^^ 

23. Lemberg, k. k. priv. graflich Skarbek'sches Thea- 
ter — Onkel Tom's Hiitte. Schauspiel. 

24. Lins, Landstandisches Theater — Onkel Tom's 
Hiitte. Schauspiel. 

25. Lissa in Posen — Eeisende Gesellschaft ; Onkel 
Tom's Hiitte. Novitat. 

26. Magdeburg, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hiitte. 
Novitat. 

27. Mamz — Onliel Tom's Hiitte. Schauspiel bearbeitet 
von Olfers.^^ 

28. Miinchen, Neues Vorstadttheater in der Aue — Onkel 
Toyn's Hiitte.' For the popularity of the play in Miinchen 
speaks the fact that it was presented twice daily, thirty 
times. In the following year (1854) it was given in the 
Volkstheater in der Miillerstrasse as Onkel Tom. Novitat. 

29. Oldenburg, stadtisches Theater — Onkel Tom. Novi- 
tat. 

30. Prag, konigliches standisches Theater — Onkel 
Tom. Novitat. 



*^Europa, 1853, No. 11, p. 88, Feb. 3. 
*»Europa, 1854, No. 14, p. 112, Feb. 10. 

'»Main£:er Journal, 1853, No. 42, 43, Feb. 18, 19: Bhein. Blatter, 1853, No. 
54, 55, Mar. 5, 6. 



50 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

31. Presshurg, konigliches standisches Theater — Onkel 
Tom. Novitat. 

32. Rostock, Stadttheater, vereinigt mit den Aktien- 
theatern zu Stralsund und Greifswald — Onkel Tom's Hutte. 
Schauspiel. 

33. Troppau, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom's Hutte. 
Schauspiel. 

34. Tyrnau, konigliches stadtisches Theater — Onkel 
Tom's Hiltte. Novitat. 

35. Wien, k. k. priv. Theater in der Josephstadt — Onkel 
Tom. Novitat. 

36. Wiesbaden, Stadt- u. national-Theater — Onkel Tom. 
Novitat. 

1854. 

1. Bremerhafen — Onkel Tom's Hiltte. Novitat. 

2. Kronstadt, Stadttheater — Onkel Tom. Novitat. 

3. Miinchen, Volkstheater, Miillerstrasse — Onkel Tom. 
Novitat. 

It is probable that a representation was given in Baden- 
Baden, according to a notice in the Badische Landeszeitung , 
1853, August 13, which says the theater director was 
wounded in the right arm by a shot during the performance * 
As a *'Puppen-komodie" — Uncle Tom appeared in Berlin 
in Hotel de Eussie as ''Onkel Tom, der Berliner Neger- 
sklave! Posse in drei Acten."^^ 

It would be interesting to attempt to group these pres- 
entations according to the dramatization, and it is probable 
that in those theaters in which the adaptation was called a 
''Schauspiel", the dramatization followed was that of 
Olfers, and in those in which it was called ''Novitat", that 
published in Wien by Megerle. It is possible that the one 
best known was that used successfully in Berlin. However, 
it is a matter of conjecture and cannot be proved ; but it is 
certain that many theaters from which no detailed reports 



^^Neue Preuss. Zeitung, 1852, No. 283-300, Dec. 5-25; 1853, No. 6, 7, Jan. 
8,9. 



UNCLE TOm's cabin ON THE STAGE 51 

of performances are to be found in the theater almanacs, 
also presented the play, following the dramatization best 
known to them, and adapting it, as it was necessary, to suit 
the public taste. 

The popularity of the play in Germany was due to its 
great vogue as a novel, and also partly to its friendly recep- 
tion on the stage in Paris and London, which was frequently 
noted in the papers. 

"Der Eoman, OnJcel Tom's Hutte, ist nicht nur in die 
meisten europaischen Sprachen iibersetzt, sondern hat jetzt 
audi Eingang auf die Pariser Biihne gefunden. Es sind 
nichts weniger als drei Melodramen, zwei Vaudevilles und 
selbst eine Oper aus diesem situationsreichen Stoffe schon 
fertig. Das Libretto fur das theater lyrique ist auch schon 
unter den Handen des Componisten Adam. — Im konig- 
stadtischen Theater zu Berlin ist bereits ein Stiick, Onhel 
Tom's Butte, auf dem Eepertoire."^^ 

Again we read in the Morgenblatt fur gebildete Leser 
under heading : 

^'Korrespondenz und Nachrichten aus Paris. Onkel 
Tom's Hutte auf der Buhne. 'La case de Poncle Tom' ! Sech- 
zig Male hat dieses Stuck das ziemlich grosseHaus uberfullt, 
ohne dass die Zuschauer miide geworden waren, die Tiraden 
der Negersklaven zu beklatschen und wahre Strome von 
Thranen iiber deren ungliickliches Schieksal zu ver- 
giessen."^^ 

We see, therefore, that Uncle Tom's Cabin is one of the 
fortunate, realistic novels which enjoyed a popularity not 
only between the covers of the book, but in a more life-like 
form on the stage, both in its own and in foreign lands. 



•^^ FranTcfurter Intell.-Blatt, 4 Beil., 1853, No. 7, Jan. 9; Beil. Heidelb. 
Journal, 1853, No. 4, Jan. 9. 

6» 1853, No. 19, May 8, p. 449-451. 



52 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

VI. Influence on Literature. 
1. Hackldnder. 

The novel in Germany during the period of reaction 
showed two directions of development under the influence of 
pessimism ; toward the past, in the historical novel, which 
described the glories of idealized by-gone days, and to the 
present and future, in the psychological, '^Tendenz- und 
Zeit-Roman", the novel with a purpose, which laid bare the 
evils of all stages and conditions of the present, and prophe- 
sied a dark and gloomy future. The writers of the latter 
kind of a novel eagerly accepted any new "motif" which 
the social life offered at home or abroad. The subject of 
slavery had not been used as a theme in the German novel, 
and the natural result of the immense popularity of Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, together with the peculiar state of the public 
mind, was imitation and borrowing. 

"Es sollte einmal Einer eine europaische Onkel Tom's 
Hutte iiber das weisse Elend schreiben",^* was the wish ex- 
pressed by several reviewers, and this was the purpose of 
Hacklander in his Europdisches Sklavenleben.^^ 

Friedrich Wilhelm Hacklander (1816-1877) experi- 
enced during his life all stages from poverty to wealth, and 
thus became intimately acquainted with all classes of society 
from the poorest to the titled rich. An orphan at twelve 
years of age, he was first an apprentice, then a soldier, then 
a clerk, and later a poor, struggling author, until he was 
noticed and patronized by nobility. In his travels with the 
Crown Prince of Wiirttemberg, his powers of observation 



^ Saga, 1853, No. 5, July 31, p. 37. 

^See J. Franck, Allgem. deu. Biogr., Bd. 10, p. 296-7; Aug. Henneberger, 
Bl. fur lit. TJnterh., 1853, I, 577 ff.; Meyer's Convers. Lex., 3 Aufl., 1876, VIII, 
403-4, gives list of works and dates: Rudolph Gottschall — Die deu. Nat. Lit. 
des 19 Jhts., Breslau, 1872, 3 A,ufl., Bd^ 4, 406-11; Eeferences are made to 
Europaisches, Slclavenleien, illustr. v. Arthur Langhammer, 3 Bde., Stuttg. 
Krabbe, 1885. Reviews of Europ. SMavenl.: Litt. Centrll, hrsg. v. Zarnke, 
Lpz., 1855, Apr. 7 and 14, p. 225; Bl. fiir lit. TJnterh., 1854, p. 258; Allgem. 
Ztng. Augsh., Beil. No. 56, Feb. 25, 1854; No. 287, Oct. 14, 1854; Neue Preuss. 
Ztng., Beil., 1854, Apr. 20, No. 92; May 5, No. 105; Sept. 22, No. 222. 



INFLUENCE ON LITEKATURE 53 

developed, which served him well in his later works. After 
1849 he wrote for the Allgemeine Zeitung for a time, and 
from then on his novels appeared in quick succession until 
his death in 1877. In his earlier writings, Hacklander at- 
tempts little more than to entertain his readers ; but in his 
novels his knowledge of life had deepened, and he tries to 
open the eyes of society blind to the atrocious evils which 
existed in its circles, and he censures and rebukes in de- 
scription and discussion. He is the " Tendenz-Schrif t- 
steller. ' ' 

Hacklander 's Europdisches Sklavenlehen (Stuttgart, 
1854) is one of his more important works, and, as its title 
signifies, treats of slavery, not of the negroes in America, 
but in every possible circle of society in Europe. Eich and 
poor, educated and ignorant, he says, wear the chains of a 
servitude from which they are powerless to free themselves ; 
and they bewail their condition as worse than that of the 
negroes who are cared for by their masters, while they are 
the white slaves of circumstances. 

The scenes of the story alternate between the lowest 
and the highest classes of society with vivid description, but 
comparatively slow action. Many characters are intro- 
duced somewhat in the Dickens manner, and the thread of 
the story is therefore sometimes difficult to follow. The 
working class and the aristocracy are the two general divi- 
sions into which the characters may be divided. The former 
group consists of the translator, Herr Staiger, his daughter, 
Clara, the ballet dancer and her friends, and the book pub- 
lisher and his clerks. The aristocracy presents the Duke, 
Baron Brand, Graf Fohrbach and the artist, Arthur Erick- 
son, together with others of the court. These and more 
appear and play a role in the intrigue and conspiracy, the 
object of which is to show that every life has its dark side 
and its tragedy. The titles of the chapters are suggestive : 
Vol. I. 3, Shlavinnen; 7, Sklavenlehen; 33, Shlavenge- 
schicJiten; 38, Goldene Fesseln; 45, SJclavenhandel; 63, Skla- 
venloos. 



54 UNCLE tom's cabin iisr Germany 

Hacklander discloses the suffering among the inmates 
of the ''children's homes", among the struggling authors 
who have to resort to translating in order to win bread for 
their families, among the dancers in the theater — ^in fact, 
he throws light upon every side of poverty with which he 
was acquainted; and, on the other hand, he shows how the 
rich suffer through dependence upon others, and through 
their own dissatisfaction with life. This suffering, he says, 
is due either to circumstances or the mutual oppression of 
the classes, and is a kind of slavery just as real and horrible 
as that of the negroes. 

The ballet dancers discuss their lot in life and consider 
themselves slaves :^^ 

"Es ist ein Leben in vielen Fallen schlimmer als das 
einer wirklichen Sklavin ; ist diese traurig, ist ihr Herz von 
Kummer und Schmerz zerrissen, so ist es doch ihrem Herrn 
gleichgiltig, ob sie die Lippen zusammenbeisst, ob eine 
Trane iiber ihre Wangen herabtrauf elt ; aber die Tanzerin 
muss lachen, muss vor den Lampen eine Gliickseligkeit heu- 
cheln, wenn auch ihr Herz dariiber brechen mochte. — Es ist 
wahr, eine Sklavin wird wie eine Waare untersucht, ihre 
Gestalt, ihr Wuchs, ihre Augen, ihre Zahne werden gepriift, 
aber das geschieht nur einzige Male in ihrem Leben; die 
Tanzerin dagegen muss sich allabendlich von dem gesamm- 
ten Publikum untersuchen lassen! Jedes Glas richtet sich 
scharf auf sie und jedes Auge prlift genau die Formen ihres 
Korpers, um dem Nachbar sagen zu konnen, 'Sie ist 
schoner geworden', 'Sie bliiht auf, oder, 'Sie nimmt ab, es 
geht zu Ende mit ihr. ' " 

The dancers feel their life more hard and bitter than 
that of the black race, because they are separated from their 
own race by birth and circumstances. They discuss Uncle 

"Freilich habe ich es gelesen, und die Absicht der 



' Vol. I, ch. 2, p. 15. 
■ Vol. I, ch. 3, p. 31 ff. 



INFLUENCE ON LITERATUEE 55 

Verfasserin ist gewiss lobenswert; aber lacherlicli ist es, 
wie man bei uns dafiir scbwarmt, wie man sich an fremdem, 
vielfach eingebildetem und iibertriebenem Elend wollustig 
erlabt, wahrend man dicht vor der Nase dasselbe in noch 
viel grosserem Massstabe hat. * * * ich kenne Leute, 
die nach der Sklaverei so vielen Tausend Meilen von sich 
ausschauen und die zu Hause dariiber stolpern; die das 
Elend jener ungliicklichen Menschen taglich und stiindlich 
beklagen, und die in ihrem Hauswesen und fiir ihre Mit- 
menschen selbst die scheusslichsten Sklavenhandler sind." 

The old translator sighs as he bends over his work, 
when he thinks of the oppression of the negroes, but he 
sighs deeper when he looks around his bare room, and hears 
his little motherless children asking for bread :^^ 

'' 'Mir scheint', sagte der alte Mann an seinem 
Schreibtisch, indem er seine Feder einen Augenblick an- 
hielt und durch die Brille nach dem Tisch schaute, 'Wir be- 
kommen noch ein Nachtessen. Ei, ei ! das ist, obgleich Ver- 
schwendung doch sehr wohltatig. Auch trifft das prachtig 
mit meiner Arbeit hier zusammen; ich iibersetze namlich 
gerade ein Souper in Onkel Tom's Hutte, und es ist sonder- 
bar, wenn ich von Essen und Trinken schreibe, da bekomme 
ich einen starken Appetit. * * * Dieses Innere von 
OnJcel Tom's Hiitte ist als recht komfortabel geschildert und 
kommt Eiuem gar nicht so unrecht vor; es ist ein anstan- 
diges, f estes Gebaude, mit einem kleinen Garten davor ; auf 
dem Herde lodert ein Feuer und verbreitet in dem Zimmer 
eine behagliche Warme * * * schon die Idee eines Ka- 
mins hat etwas hochst Behagliches * * * Tante Chloe 
steht am Kiichenfeuer und aus ihrer Bratpfanne hervor 
dringt der Greruch von etwas Gutem ; sie hat eben noch ein 
Stuck Speck hineingetan, und bemerkt dass der Kuchen 
sich wunderschon farbt * * * jfj^\ es ist etwas sehr 
Vortreffliches um so einen Kuchen!' " 

Hacklander expresses his own feeling in regard to 



' Vol. I, ch. 6, p. 64. 



56 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

slavery and especially the slavery among the readers of 
Uncle Tom, which they failed to recognize, through his char- 
acters as we have seen and will further understand in the 
conversation of Herr Staiger.^^ He bewails the fact that 
the very readers who waste tears over a book, do all that is 
in their power to oppress those under them. He says the 
book is unique and well-fitting to America, where the agita- 
tion for freedom of the slaves is active, but in the other 
countries, where the book excited great feeling of sym- 
pathy, the readers had not the courage to look around them 
and see a greater misery. He praises Mrs. Stowe's object: 

''Die Verfasserin, eine Amerikanerin, Augenzeugin des 
von ihr geschilderten Sklavenlebens hatte gewiss die schon- 
ste und lobenswerteste Absicht", but he does not believe 
that she had any thought of ''das Publikum mit Onkel 
Tom's Hutten zu uberschwemmen, in Wort und Bild, in Ge- 
sangen und Theaterstucken. " 

"Da haben sie aus dem Buche ein Lied gemacht. Es 
behandelt den Moment, wo die Sklavin, Elise, mit ihrem 
Kinde uber die auf- und abschwankenden Eisschollen des 
Ohios flieht — allerdings eine entschlossene und schone Tat. 

"Dieses Lied ist nun von irgend Einem zierlich in Mu- 
sik gesetzt und wird jetzt schmachtend gesungen von Tau- 
senden deutscher Frauen und Jungfrauen zu den Akkorden 
eines Klaviers oder dem Geklimper einer Guitarre, sich 
selbst und den Zuhorern unaussprechlichen Verg-niigen ; und 
es ist eine Heldentat, deren Vorbild man Tausende von Mei- 
len weit herholen musste, weil nichts Ahnliches aufzuweisen 
ist im lieben Vaterlande * * * i^b habe eine Mutter 
gekannt, die hat fiir ihr Kind noch unendlich mehr getan, 
und man hat sie nicht gepriessen in Biichern und Balladen. 
Dieses Weib war ein armes ungliickliches Weib, und ob- 
gleich sie nicht von Sklavenhandlern gejagt wurde, so jag- 
ten sie doch noch viel grimmigere Feinde, Not und 
Hunger. * * * J){q Sklavin entging nicht ihren Ver- 

" Vol. I, ch. 7, p. 76 £e. 



INFLUENCE ON LITEKATURE 57 

folgern, sie wurde jenseits ihres mit schwimmenden Eis- 
schollen bedeckten Ohio's niclit von freundlicher Hand 
aufgenommen. Die weisse Sklavin erhielt fiir sich und ihr 
Kind kein warmes Zimmer, kein gutes Bett; sie fiel der 
straf enden Gerechtigkeit anheim ; sie ist verschwnnden nnd 
verschollen; kein Buch beschreibt ihre grossere Tat, keine 
Ballade besingt ihr Elend und das ihres Kindes." 

In such burning words does Hacklander show us his 
sympathy for the poor and suffering and his contempt for 
those who are only willing to look on them at a distance, 
and are to a large extent themselves the cause of the dis- 
tress and poverty which surrounds them in their neighbor- 
hoods. The author says :^^ 

''AUe sing Sklaven, alle haben keinen freien Willen, 
auch die nicht welche stolz auf uns herabblicken ; und 
je hoher sie stehen, desto herber fiihlen sie ihre Sklaverei. ' ' 
The rich are the slaves of their money, and often of 
ill-health — and in the higher classes of society they are 
slaves of fashion and custom. There words, pleasant looks 
and smiling lips are only masks which hide, under gold and 
flowers, sick heart; "Und so hangen alle Menschen an 
einer gewaltigen Kette, vom Bottler bis hinauf zum Konige, 
Ja — alle, alle sind Sklaven!" 

The book-dealer Blaffer, in conversation with his clerks 
complain s„ that his best books will not sell, and adds:®^ 
*' "Wenn Onkel Tom nicht ware, oder ein Paar gangbare 
Dumas 'schen Eomane, so sollte mich der Teuf el holen, 
wenn ich nicht langer deutscher Buchhandler bliebe. Da 
haben wir vierzig anstandige Bestellungen auf die Hiitte. 
* * * Ich hatte nicht gedacht, dass der Sklavenhandel so 
ergiebig ware. Es ist doch was Schones darum, wenn man 
so jeden Posttag seine vierzig Schwarze behandelt.' " 

He calls his clerks slaves and himself the master, and 
he acts the part well, although in the scene in which the 



•»Vol. I, ch. 7, p. 83. 
« Vol. I, ch. 12, p. 142. 



58 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

artist makes arrangements to illustrate the book, while Herr 
Staiger is discoursing on slavery,^- he becomes uneasy, and 
winces visibly when the personal side of the subject is 
shown. He is a fair picture of a slave dealer — indeed, as 
the artist sat talking, he busied himself with sketching him 
as such, and afterwards when the chief clerk found the 
paper, he waved it in the air and said : 

" 'Sehen Sie, da steht er, wie er leibt und lebt, der 
Sklavenhandler Blaff er ; und auch wir sind nicht vergessen, 
mich hat er auf Ehre als Onkel Tom dahin conterf eit. ' ' '^^ 

The artist considers his own life as a hard one, because 
he is dependent upon the court for patronage, and says, 
Uncle Tom ought to be satisfied with him, since he does not 
return the blows which he receives. He also is a slave of 
circumstance.^^ His brother, Alfons, feels himself the slave 
of his wife's whims — ^while she in turn pities herself as an 
''elende Sklavin".*^^ She is the Mrs. St. Clare of the book. 
The author says of Alfons: "Er sah sein Leben dahin- 
ziehen in einer Abhangigkeit, in einer Sklaverei, arger als 
die, welche mit hochgeschwungener Peitsche zur ange- 
strengsten Arbeit treibt. ' ' 

The Duke sighs over the continual whirl of life at the 
court :^^ 

" 'Aber ich! — Dienst! — Dienst! — Dienst! — von Mor- 
gens Friih, wenn ich meine Augen offne, bis Nachts wenn 
ich sie wieder schliesse ; und auch dann noch oft keine Euhe, 
denn ich traume davon. Eine wahre Sklaverei ! ' " 

Graf Fohrbach also complains :^'^ 

" 'Freiheit! Freiheit! * * * Ja, Sklaverei ist das 
rechte Wort ; und wenn die Ketten auch von Gold oder Sil- 
ber sind, Ketten sind und bleiben sie doch einmal ! ' " 



*° Vol. I, ch. 13, p. 163 ff. 

<» Of., also Vol. II, ch. 39, p. 34-5, Vol. Ill, ch. 73, p. 179-180. 

<"' Cf . Vol. II, ch. 53, p. 256-7. 

«= Vol. I, ch. 14, p. 187-8. 

«» Vol. II, ch. 55, p. 281. 

«' Vol. II, ch. 56, p. 312-3. 



INFLUElSrCE ON LITERATUEE 59 

Baron Brand confesses :^^ 

*' 'Ich war Herr imd Gebieter iiber Tausende von 
Sklaven.' " 

So with bitterness and sarcasm HacMander pictures 
society and censures not only its follies and weakness, but 
its deliberate cruelty. In nearly every chapter he mentions 
Uncle Tom, and in many places Mrs. Stowe also. The con- 
ditions of society he describes in detail. It needs a second 
Mrs. Stowe, he says,*^^ to show to the world to what an 
alarming extent the blind seeking for pleasure is driven — 
and especially in the cities : 

''Es ist das ein Kapitel, welches in keiner Sklavenge- 
schichte fehlen darf, und das auch in Onkel Tom's Hiitte 
vorkommen wiirde. ' ^'^^ 

The negroes know no difference among themselves, he 
adds, yet are perfectly conscious of the line between them 
and the white race, though they do not desire to cross this 
boundary. In European society the lines of division are 
drawn by birth and circumstances, false lines which ought 
not to exist. 

An amusing incident concerning Mrs. Stowe is found 
in the first volume.'^^ Several of the theater attendants are 
talking with an old man who describes a pretended journey 
to America, during which he had seen Mrs. Stowe. He says 
she lived in a house next to a ^'Wirtshaus zum weissen 
Eoss", and that he was received in a friendly manner by 
her when he called. He describes his entertainment at din- 
ner, at which the dishes, etc., were of amber, d piece of 
which he convincingly shows as the end of his pipe. Being 
asked if Mrs. Stowe was the author of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 
he answers, "She feeds her hens and geese, and darns her 
children's stockings, but never thinks of writing a book." 
To his question, who was the author? he reports the answer : 

«« Vol. Ill, ch. 64, p. 15. 
«9 Vol. I, ch. 28, p. 370. 
^»Vol. I, ch. 28, p. 377. 
" Vol. I, p. 240 ff . 



60 UNCLE TOM's cabin IN GERMANY 

^' 'Icli hab' es niclit geschrieben. Ich kenne aber den Ver- 
fasser; es ist von einem pietistisclien Pfarrer in Ehein- 
Preussen!' " 

The purpose of this scene, aside from that of amuse- 
ment to the reader, is to show the foolishness and falseness 
of reports about America, and the gullibility of old travel- 
ers, who may or may not have been in the New World. Also 
here is seen, as is true of the whole book, the sarcasm with 
which Haeklander treated the people who showed enthusi- 
asm and sympathy for America in her struggle with slavery, 
when there was a similar condition with them at home. 
This irony was not directed in particular against Mrs. 
Stowe or her book, but against the general movement of 
' ' Schwarmerei flir das Fremde". 

Haeklander expresses the purpose of his work as fol- 
lows :'^2 

''Der geneigte Leser, den wir nun einmal in die Ge- 
heimnisse eingefiihrt, kann auch von uns verlangen, dass 
wir ihm ferner mitteilen. * * * y^[y tun dies um so 
lieber, als wir ihm dadurch der Tendenz unserer wahrhafti- 
■gen Geschichten gemass beweisen, dass kein Mensch auf 
dieser Welt der Sklaverei entgeht und im Stande ist, be- 
standig seinen Willen durchzusetzen, nicht die Bettler, 
nicht die Hochsten dieser Erde." 

The influence of Mrs. Stowe 's Uncle Tom's Cabin upon 
this novel may be characterized as inspiration and imita- 
tion of purpose. The subject of slavery had been brought 
before the' public in a concrete and stirring form in Uncle 
Tom, and that only about one year before, and the enthu- 
siasm for the book not only astonished Haeklander, but led 
him to write his own feelings on the subject. He did not 
attempt to imitate the characters, unless it may be said that 
the wife of Alfons represents Mrs. St. Clare, and the old 
translator, Uncle Tom ; but these characters are types just 
as those in Uncle Tom. He did not, it is true, offer a means 



" Vol. II, ch. 38, p. 26. 



INFLUENCE ON LITEKATUEE 61 

to alleviate the suffering which he describes, but neither did 
Mrs. Stowe, and in this the two works are alike. Both books 
are a description and representation of social conditions — 
both plead for their betterment. 

The book was popular, for the public now demanded 
''Sklavengeschichten", and because Uncle Tom's Cabin was 
at the height of its popularity. The fact that Hacklander 
had already made a name for himself as a writer was also 
a factor which made the circle of readers larger. 

It is plain that Hacklander wished to satisfy the public 
taste, and at the same time express his opinions of slavery 
in general, and had Uncle Tom's Cabin not been written, 
we can safely say that Europdisches Sklavenleben would 
also not have come into existence. 

In America the book was adapted for the theater by 
Germaner and was presented April 4, 1865, at the Stadt- 
theater, and July 20, 21, and August 2, 1877, in the Turner 
Halle in Philadelphia. '^^ 

The influence of Uncle Tom upon Hacklander 's work 
was at once detected by the readers and critics, as will be 
seen by a glance at the reviews. In nearly all notices of 
Europdisches Sklavenleben, Uncle Tom is mentioned, and a 
comparison drawn. In Bldtter fiir literarische Unterhal- 
tung,'^'^ the review is entitled, ' ' ein deutsches Seitenstuck zu 
Onkel Tom". Here the reviewer shows that Hacklander 
was dependent upon Mrs. Stowe for inspiration and that he 
tried to fulfill the wish expressed by reviewers of her book 
for a German Uncle Tom — a description of European 
slavery. 

The critic says: ''Wer sucht bei uns Sklaverei und 
Sklavenhalter, Sklavensignalement und Sklavenhetze, die 
Sklavenpeitsche und das Sklavenbrandmal ? Doch hat 
Hacklander die Entdeckung gemacht, dass es mitten unter 
uns, in unsern so wohl organisirten und beaufsichtigten 

'^Lems, The German Stage in Philadelphia, in Ms., cf. Prof. M. D. 
Learned, University of Pennsylvania. 
'* Bl. f. lit. Vnth., 1854, p. 258. 



62 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEBMANY 

Staaten, Scharen von Sklaven gibt, welche genau beselien 
noch ungliickliclier daran sind als die scliwarzen Sklaven in 
Amerika, etc." 

The reviewers consider the book somewhat overdrawn, 
yet written by one who has a Hterary reputation, it could not 
fail to find readers. 

2. AuerbachJ^ 

Another novelist who came into the circle of Mrs. 
Stowe's influence is Berthold Auerbach (1812-1882), known 
and loved through his Schwarzivdlder Dorfgescliichten, 
which aroused a new interest in the life of the common 
people. Most of his novels have a well-defined political, 
democratic or social purpose, and this is so in the one which 
interests us here in connection with Mrs. Stowe, Das Land- 
haus am Rhein (3 Bde. Stuttg. 1869). 

The Civil War had been over in America for about four 
years, and Germany was watching the work of reconstruc- 
tion of the Union, and how America was trying to solve the 
problem of what to do with the freedman. It is not to be 
wondered, therefore, that Auerbach, a strong champion of 
freedom, as seen even in his early DorfgescMcliten, should 
be affected by the struggle in the New World, and should 
discuss the slavery question. 

The two problems which he tries to solve in this novel 
are the education of a millionaire's son and daughter, and 
whether the father, who had been a slave-trader and slave- 
murderer, should be raised to the nobility. Growing out of 
the latter are the effect upon the children of the knowledge 
of their father's past life, and the attitude of society in 
Germany toward him as a representative of the slave-party 
in America. 

The characters of the novel fall into three groups — the 
Americans, those of higher society, and the philosophical. 

"Auerbach: AUgem. deu. Biogr. I; Julian Schmidt, CharaMerMlder aus 
der zeitgenoss. Literatur, Lpz., 1875, p. 37-49; Eudolf Gottschall, D. deu. Nat. 
Lit. des 19. Jhts., Bd. 4. 3 Aufl., Breslau, 1872, p. 340-352; Brief e an seinen 
Freund, Jakob Auerbach, hg. v. Spielhagen, Frankfurt, 1884, 2 Bde. 



INFLUENCE ON LITERATUEE 63 

In the centre of the first group stands Herr Sonnenkamp, a 
German by birth, who had been engaged in the slave-trade 
in America. He returned to his fatherland after becoming 
very wealthy, and built a beautiful mansion, Villa Eden, on 
the banks of the Ehine. He then seeks admission to a higher 
rank in society through the influence of gold. He is por- 
trayed as a proud, ambitious and arbitrary man, whose one 
good quality is love for his children, who, coming to Ger- 
many as a stranger, is respected and .feared by people in 
general because of his wealth and generosity, but is some- 
what avoided by the circle which he wishes to enter, because 
of the mystery which surrounds him. His wife, Frau Ceres, 
is a weak, childish woman, the daughter of the steward on 
a slave-ship, which her husband had formerly owned, and 
her only important part in the story is, that in a fit of anger 
she tells her daughter, Manna, something of the past history 
of her husband, and so embitters the girl's life that she goes 
to a convent, intending to become a nun. 

The boy, Roland, does not inherit his father's coarse- 
ness and egotism, but has a fine, sympathetic nature. His 
education rests with his tutor, Erich Dournay, who is the 
centre of the philosophical group. Erich's mother, the wife 
of a professor, and represented as an ideal woman, before 
whom all bow, and her son, who is an indefatigable student 
and teacher, act as ''balance-wheels" in the household at 
ViUa Eden. 

The nobility group has for its head Graf Klodwig, who 
is also philosophical and learned in the classics. It is 
through his means and those of his wife, Grafin Bella, that 
Sonnenkamp endeavors to enter the higher circle. Through 
this desire the past life and true character of the roillionaire 
is revealed. He wears an iron ring on his right thumb to 
hide a scar caused by the bite of a slave whom he threw 
overboard when his ship was pursued, and this scar serves 
as a part of the evidence against him, for at the critical 
moment, when he is about to be made Baron, this negro re- 



64 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

appears in the service of a Prince, recognizes his former 
master and is with difficulty restrained from killing him. 
This scene, of course, removes all possibility of the fulfill- 
ment of Sonnenkamp's desire, and here is seen the attitude of 
the people toward slavery. Sonnenkamp is ostracized, 
avoided by his best friends, servants and even by his own 
children, and at last is mobbed by the people of his neigh- 
borhood, until he sees that only one course is left, to flee 
from his home. 

One morning he and Grafin Bella, the only person who 
seems to be influenced by him, and who in turn exercises a 
strong power over him, are not to be found. They go to 
America and take part in the Civil War on the Confederate 
side and thus meet their death. The children. Manna and 
Eoland, feeling the stain of their father's past upon them, 
and willing to give up their lives to remove the curse which 
he had brought upon them all, also go to America with Erich 
Dournay. The love of the latter for Manna keeps him 
faithful to them when he recoiled from their father, and he 
proves himself a true guide and helper. Eoland and Erich 
enlist in a negro regiment, and live to return to Villa Eden. 

The influence of Uncle Tom's Cabin upon this novel is 
seen in the characters and in the discussion of the slave 
question. 

Sonnenkamp resembles the slave-dealers Haley and 
Legree and the thin veneer of refinement and courtesy which 
partially veils the innate coarseness and savagery of his 
nature only makes his egotism and cruelty the more hateful 
and repulsive to the reader. He firmly believes in slavery as 
an institution, as did the slave-owners of the South, since it 
had brought him his wealth ; and no argument can shake his 
conviction that the black man is anything more than an 
animal and to be treated as such. He may be said to be an 
example of the '' new-rich" type, gaining money by fraud, 
extortion and ill-use of his fellowmen and exulting in his 
gains. He is called by von Pranken, the brother of the 



INFLUEIsrCE ON LITEEATUEE 65 

Grafin Bella — ''Massa Soniieiikainp".'^^ Again, when Eo- 
land begs to be released from his father's embrace, he re- 
members how Dr. Fritz, a German who had known him in 
i\merica, had said,'^'^ "0 you, who root out the love of 
parents and children among your fellowmen, how can you 
hope to be loved by your own children?" The words now 
cut him to the quick, and at this moment the parrot calls 
out, ''God bless you, Massa!" like the voice of a spirit and 
sends a shudder over him, just as he. tries to forget the 
black pages of his life. 

On every side he is questioned in regard to slavery, be- 
cause he is known to have been in America."^^ Whether the 
negroes have souls is discussed, and what the race may 
become in the future, and always Sonnenkamp takes the 
view of the Southerner. Graf Klodwig expresses the 
opinion,^'' "ich glaube, dass Amerika zur Vollendung einer 
grossen Tat berufen ist : zur Tilgung der Sklaverei von der 
Erde". And in the discussion after the reading of Othello 
Sonnenkamp grows more and more excited, and finally sur- 
prises all by an outburst :^" 

"Gib' Deine Tochter einem Neger, tu' das! tu' das! 
Ftirchte jede Stunde dass er Dein Kind zerfleische ! Tu' das ! 
edler Menschenf reund ! Dann komme wieder und sprich von 
Gleichheit der weissen und der schwarzen Eacen ! ' ' 

The character of Eoland is shown in his words to his 
father :^^ 

"Vater! Ich habe eine freie Seele! Ich bin Dein Sohn, 
aber meine Seele ist frei ! " 

The boy was born in America and has a faint recol- 
lection of being carried in the arms of a slave, and a song 



'Vol. I, bk. I, p. 16. 

'Vol. I, bk. IV, p. 216 and 224; Vol. I, bk. II, p. 91. 

' Vol. II, bk. VI, p. 29. 

' Vol. II, bk. VI, p. 33. 

> Vol. II, bk. XIII, p. 129 ff. 

^ Vol. II, bk. XIII, p. 136. 



66 UNCLE tom's cabin in qeemany 

which he had heard the negroes sing haunts his memory.^^ 
He reads the books of the day, including works of Theodore 
Parker and the life of Benjamin Franklin, which prepared 
his mind for the reading of Uncle Tom, which did not occur 
until after he had learned the story of his father's past, and 
the latter had fled from home.^^ 

"Roland las jetzt zum ersten Male Onkel Tom's Hutte; 
er weinte Tranen dariiber, aber bald richtete er sich auf 
und fragte: Was ist das? Den Gepeitschten und Misshan- 
delten an Vergeltung im Jenseits weisen, wo der Herr des 
Sklaven geziichtigt und der misshandelte Sklave erhoht 
wird? Wer gibt die erlittene Qual zuriiek! Wer entscha- 
dig"t ihn fiir die Gefangenschaft, die er erleiden musste, 
um dann als unschuldig erkannt zu werden ? ' ' 

Manna is of the same deep religious nature as Eva. 
She is represented as older, however, a girl of the same 
simple, gentle manners, who suffers intensely from the 
knowledge that her father is not the ideal which she had 
believed him to be, and because she herself is thought to be 
a quadroon by her schoolmates, who avoid her companion- 
ship. She determines not to use her father's money until 
he declares that the children's share was gained through 
honest means. 

The feeling of the people, touching slavery and the 
cause of the South, is seen throughout the book from the 
sentiments expressed directly and indirectly, especially 
when the dramatic story of Sonnenkamp's life is printed 
in the newspapers and read by all his friends and neighbors. 
The scene in which Villa Eden is attacked by the mob is a 
striking illustration :^^ 

*'Es wurde Nacht; da tonte ein Geheul, ein Gejohte, ein 
Pfeifen, Rasseln und Klirren, wie wenn die Holle losgelas- 
sen ware. Sonnenkamp richtete sich auf. Bei Fackelschein 
sah er wunderliche Gestalten mit schwarzen Gesichten. 



«^Vol. II, bk. 2, p. 122. 
"Vol. Ill, bk. XIV, p. 247. 
" Vol. Ill, bk. XII, p. 135 ff. 



INFLUENCE ON LITEEATUEE 67 

Was ist das? 1st das Einbildung ? Kommen sie heran, 
die Geschopfe mit Menschengestalt aus der f ernen Welt ? 
'Hinaus, aus dem Land' muss er !' rief es von unten. 
^Zu seinen Schwarzen soil er!' 
'Wir wollen ihn holen und sckwarz anstreichen ! ' 

'Wo ist err 

' Gebt ilin heraus, oder wir zerschlagen alles ! ' 

Sonnenkamp eilte auf den offenen Balcon; da horte er 
die Stimme Erichs, der mit gewaltigem Rufe die Menge 
ermahnte. 

'1st Einer unter Euch, der sagen kann, was Ihr wollt, 
der trete vor. ' 

Ein Mann mit geschwarztem Antlitz, den Erich nicht 
sofort erkannte, trat vor. 

'Was wollen die Menschen?' 

' Sie wollen, dass Herr Sonnenkamp, oder wie er heisst, 
unsere Gegend verlasse und wieder dahin gehe, von wo er 
gekommen ist. ' 

' Hinaus soil er ! ' 

'Und meine Wiese soil er mir wiedergeben ! ' 

' Und mir meinen Weinberg ! ' 

' Und mir mein Haus ! ' 

So rief es da und dort aus dem Haufen. 

'Ihr Manner, was habe ich Euch denn getanf rief Son- 
nenkamp. 

' Menschenf resser ! ' 

' Menschenverkauf er ! ' 

' Menschenhandler ! ' schrie es aus der Versammlung. 

'Hinaus soUst Du!' 

'Hinaus! Hinaus!' " 

Here we have a picture of the rage of the people against 
the slave-trader, and in Uncle Tom's Cabin we read of the 
anger of the slave-owners and traders against the fugitive 
slaves and all who helped them in any way to escape. The 
flight and pursuit of Eliza and George might be compared 
to this scene. 



68 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEEMANY 

It is evident that Auerbach had read and appreciated 
the book of Mrs. Stowe in the height of its popularity, for 
he mentions the book. How far he was influenced in the 
Landhaus am Rhein is difficult to state definitely, for he 
mentions other contemporary writers on the subject of 
slavery. For his portrayal of the character of Sonnen- 
kamp he is undoubtedly indebted to Mrs. Stowe. A slave- 
trader transplanted to Germany, a Haley or Legree in high 
society, could scarcely have been so well described without 
the help of Uncle Tom's Cabin. The character of Manna 
suggests that of Eva; that of Frau Ceres, Mrs. St. Clare, 
the idle, the useless, whimsical woman. But aside from the 
characters, the opinons expressed in regard to slavery in the 
discussions which arise are identical in sentiment. Both 
arguments for the North and for the South are introduced, 
and we believe that in this Auerbach was influenced to some 
extent by Mrs. Stowe. 

From the novel we can plainly recognize the attitude of 
Auerbach 's mind in regard to the political conditions in 
America, and what his course of reading has been, and his 
sympathies must have been greatly aroused to lead him to 
express himself so strongly on the slave question. Das 
Landhaus am Rhein served as a medium through which he 
expressed his views in character, dialogue and reflection. 

3. Minor Writers. 

The public mind during the period of the popularity of 
Uncle Tom demanded stories of America and particularly 
of slave life. The book dealers and writers saw that their 
other books would sell slowly as long as this demand lasted, 
and the result was a great number both of translations of 
English imitations and or original German stories, which 
were written by authors little known under the inspiration 
of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

Among these minor writers there are two very distinct 
imitators which deserve special attention. They are ''Sir 



INFLUENCE ON LITEKATTJKE 69 

Jolm Eettcliffe" — not the original, but an imitator whose 
real name was Bernhard Hesslein,^^ (Hamburg, 1818-1882, 
Friedrichshagen bei Berlin), journalist and writer of short 
stories, and Ludwig Gothe,^-^ (Potsdam, 1835-1881, Moabit 
bei Berlin), who through the help of Fanny Lewald became 
a writer of sketches for the newspapers and later of novels. 

(a) '^ReUcliffe^\ or Hesslein. 

Two novels, "Abraham Lincoln" and '^Jefferson 
Davis^\^^ by Hesslein, were influenced by Mrs. Stowe. In 
the former the influence is not as marked as in the latter, 
except that the name ''Eva" is used for one of the char- 
acters. The second may be justly called an imitation. It is 
divided into three parts: 1, ''Der Teufel von Five Points"; 
2, ''Der Negerbaron"; 3, "Das weisse Haus"; and pre- 
sents a continuation of the life of Uncle Tom. The author 
attempts to show the social and political conditions in the 
United States shortly before the outbreak of the Civil War. 
The portrayal of the life is as the author conceives it from 
his reading of contemporary books — not from observation. 
He quotes Cooper's North America and Kapp's History of 
Slavery, but it is Mrs. Stowe whom he follows in delineation 
of character and expression of sentiment. 

The scene is first laid in New York, then in the West 
and lastly in the Capitol. In the first part, life in New York, 
particularly in that part known as the "Five Points", is 
described in detail; together with the work of the aboli- 
tionists in their cause, and the risks and dangers which they 
experienced in consequence of efforts to aid fugitive slaves. 
The principal negro character is that of Uncle Tob, or Mr. 
Tobias Jonathan, as he humbly requests to be called, point- 
ing to his certificate of freedom. He is a co-worker of the 
abolitionists and a strong friend of the slaves, and in his 

*^Fr. Briimmer, Lex. deu. BicMer u. Prosaisten d. 19. JMs., 2 Bde., Lpz., 
Eeclam, 1896. 

^^J. B. social-polit. Eoman «. d. amerih. BurgerTcrieg, v. Bernliard Hess- 
lein, Lpz., 1866-7, 



70 UNCLE TOM's cabin IN GERMANY 

role of preacher he finds more than one way to aid them. 
He lives in a house which has underground passages and 
rooms, in which he hides his friends, or imprisons the en- 
emies to the cause of freedom. He is a Christian, but does 
not hesitate to shoot down his foe when it is necessary to 
save his own life or that of a friend. He quotes the Bible 
frequently, and in ordinary circumstances is quiet and 
thoughtful like Uncle Tom, but when occasion for action 
comes he shows Uncle Tom's strength and coolness. 

Uncle Tob's wife is Dinah, not the proud and self- 
sufficient Dinah of the St. Clare kitchen, but a broken- 
hearted mulatto woman, who continually grieves for her 
little Eva, who was torn from her and sold into slavery. 

Bob, Uncle Tob's youngest child, is still held in 
slavery. He is the Topsy of the story, and is called a 
monkey by his master, and he seems one generally, but be- 
hind the mischief and deviltry is an extreme hatred of the 
white oppressors, and a feeling of revenge for the suiferings 
of his race, which he cold-bloodedly puts into action when- 
ever he has an opportunity. His pranks continually amuse 
and his mocking laugh follows the reader, but, though he is 
a much more intelligent character than Topsy, he is a very 
improbable one. 

Eliza is here called Ella. She is a mulatto girl who 
has been stolen from her home by a slave-dealer, and res- 
cued by Uncle Tob and Bob after the latter killed the son 
of her master in her protection. For this crime she is ac- 
cused. The slave-trader and her master are drugged and 
imprisoned by Uncle Tob, and when the house is searched, 
she is hidden in a secret underground room, and later res- 
cued by her father, a white Abolitionist. This search by the 
police is a counterpart of the attack upon the fugitives in 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, In both situations the leader of the 
attacking party is killed, and the fugitives barely escape. 
In character Ella is represented like Eliza, resolute in face 
of danger, although somewhat younger. 



INFLUEITCE ON LITERATURE 71 

Bianka, the wife of an abolitionist, reminds us of Mrs. 
St. Clare. She is impressionable, high-spirited, or fretful 
and despondent according to mood; and in the wild grief 
over the loss of her child, Alice, she is particularly like Mrs. 
Stowe's character. Her husband is not as lighthearted as 
Mr. St. Clare, but a man of the type of Mr. Shelby, and he 
is put in the same trying circumstances as Mr. Shelby 
through the lack of money. 

In the second and third parts we have new characters 
added and the scene changes to Kansas. Here we see the 
influence of Mrs. Stowe in the sad story of Cassy. She is 
here, as in Uncle Tom's Cabin, the daughter of a slave- 
owner. She flees from home on account of ill-treatment, but 
is captured and on the death of her master, is sold. She is 
again cruelly treated, is imprisoned, but at last escapes. A" 
third time she is recaptured after a long search and is sold 
to a lenient mistress, who sets her free. This character is a 
faithful copy of Mrs. Stowe's Cassy. 

The name Chloe is also used, but not in an important 
role. She is the cook in the Western cabin. 

The slave auction is twice described in the exact man- 
ner of Mrs. Stowe. The sentiment is the same. Reflections 
on the conditions of North and South are frequently intro- 
duced, and the whole 'Hendenz" of the book is that of Mrs. 
Stowe, although it lacks truth to nature, which can be ac- 
counted for by the fact that the author wrote from what he 
had read and from his own imagination. 

Uncle Tob is Uncle Tom freed and transplanted to 
New York; Bob is Topsy; Ella is Eliza; and many other 
comparisons might be drawn. The book was published, con- 
fessing its dependence upon Mrs. Stowe. We find on the 
reverse side of the title page this note : 

''Die Verfasserin von Onkel Tom gestand, dass ihr be- 
riihmtes Werk nur eine unvollstdndige Schilderung der 
Sklaverei enthalte, und zwar deshalb, weil diese in vielen 
ihrer Wirkungen mit solchen Schrecknissen verhunden sei^ 



72 uisrcLE tom's cabin in Germany 

dass ihre Enthullungen sich fiir die Zwecke der Kunst nicht 
eignen. — Der Verfasser dieses Werkes aber glaubt jede 
Rilcksicht, welche das entsetzliche Institut nicht in seiner 
gansen Schandlichkeit erscheinen lasst, bei Seite legen, ohne 
deshalb, wie er hofft, das astlietisclie Gefiihl seiner Leser 
beleidigen zu miissen. ' ' 

Added at the end of the last volume we find a review 
reprinted from the Magdeburger Presse, which tries to 
show that the story is more trne to life than that of Mrs. 
Stowe. The reviewer can also judge only from a limited 
knowledge, hence the opinion. The critic concludes : 

"Zu Frau Stowe 's Buch steht das vorliegende in dem 
Verhaltniss, wie die vollendete Handlung zu den Zweifeln 
und Kampfen, aus denen sie hervorgegangen. Jenes Werk 
wirft seinen Schatten gewissermassen vor sich her, es steht 
vor dem Abschluss der welthistorischen Katastrophe und 
schliesst daher mit einem schrillen Missklang. 

''Unserm Verfasser haben inzwischen die Ereignisse 
vorgearbeitet, und wir zweifeln nicht, dass sein Eoman ei- 
nen Abschluss erhalten wird, der den Leser durch den Hin- 
weis auf den Umschwung der Gegenwart und die Aussichten 
der Zukunft mit der Vergangenheit aussohnen wird." 

(b) Gothe. 

'^Am Red River oder SMavenlehen in Nord-Amerika,^'^ 
and Die Maron-Neger,^^ by L. Gothe." 

In these four volumes we are told the history and ex- 
periences of a German family who lived in New Orleans, 
but on the disappearance and reputed death of the father, 
were sold into slavery as quadroons. The life and suffering 
of each is told in detail and the evils and injustice of slavery 
are dwelt upon in description and discussion at every op- 
portunity. In order to lead the story to a happy conclusion 



"^m Bed Biver, etc., Ersdhlung aus der Gegenwart nach authent. Mittei- 
lungen; bearb. v. L. Gothe; 2 tble. Berl. Lindow, 1862-3. 

^Die Maron-Neger, oder SMavenemporung am Bed Biver, v. L. Gothe; 2 
thle., Berl. Lindow, 1864. 



INFLUENCE ON" LITEEATUKE 



73 



the author introduces the father again upon the scene and 
reunites the family in freedom. 

The names of the characters are the same as in Uncle 
Tom's Cabin. Eva is here the daughter of the slave-trader, 
and is described as the exact opposite of the gentle creature 
which Mrs. Stowe depicts. She is a child of about the same 
age, but hard-hearted, exacting, and a severe mistress to her 
slaves. She aids her father in his business by examining 
and locking the chains upon the slaves, and he depends upon 
her judgment in buying and selling. Eliza is in some re- 
spects similar to the Eliza of Mrs. Stowe 's book. She is a 
quiet girl of considerable refinement, who suffers much as 
a slave, but she is not placed in situations which require 
great decisions and courage. She does not play as important 
a role as does Harriet de Belleville. The author evidently 
chose the Christian name of Mrs. Stowe for one of his char- 
acters with purpose. He knew that her name was widely 
known and that her life was also familiar to all parts of the* 
reading world. A slave-mistress of the South so named 
would be all the more striking in a novel, because of the 
contrast with Mrs. Stowe. This is the author's purpose. 
He shows us Harriet de Belleville, instead of the quiet, 
gentle, earnest Harriet Beecher-Stowe, an unnaturally cruel 
and revengeful woman— utterly without principle, who 
makes the lives of her slaves the hardest possible, with 
severe and continual punishment. Her cruelty is known for 
miles around, and to be bought by her is considered the 
greatest misfortune that could come to a slave. 

The name Eliza is spelled in the English manner, as 
are Harriet and Eva. These names were known to every 
reader through Uncle Tom, and we may safely conclude that 
they were taken from the book with the purpose of making 
the story more attractive and popular. 

The character of Arthur, the eldest of the separated 
family, is somewhat similar to that of Uncle Tom. He is 
misused, and suffers silently and uncomplainingly, because 



74 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

he loves his mistress. Tom is whipped to death, earthly- 
freedom coming too late; Arthur nearly dies of fever and 
imprisonment, but is rescued and made free by his con- 
science-stricken mistress. He is one of the principal char- 
acters of the sequel, around whom his mistress, Isabella de 
Zarates, his sisters and brothers are grouped. 

The slave-trader, compared to Haley and Legree, shows 
some differences. He is not openly as cruel and hateful to- 
ward his slaves, for he wishes to be known, for trade's sake, 
as a very humane and religious man, but in reality his treat- 
ment is little better than thai: of Legree, except that he un- 
derstands perfectly well that excessive cruelty diminishes 
the selling value of ^'feine Waare". 

The death of little Eva seems to have impressed itself 
upon the author, for in the last chapter he portrays the 
death of Maria in a similar manner. One cannot read this 
scene without seeing clearly the influence of Mrs. Stowe, 
but the picture is by no means as skillfully drawn. 

The religious element enters into the story to much 
the same extent as in Uncle Tom, but in a somewhat differ- 
ent manner. One of the principal slave-owners is Isabella 
de Zarates, a young Creole. She falls in love with Arthur, 
her slave ; and since she dare not marry him, she seeks the 
advice of an old priest, who tells her to reunite the whole 
family in gratitude to Arthur, for having saved her life in 
an insurrection of the ''Maron-Neger", and so win peace 
for her troubled conscience. Mr. Shelby's mind is not at 
rest when he sells Tom, and Mr. St. Clare is uneasy regard- 
ing the future of his slaves. The element of a dissatisfied 
conscience thus enters into both books. 

Each of the members of the enslaved family have the 
religious sentiment deepened through their experiences, and 
in the last scene they all unite in the hymn ''Nun danket alle 
Gott!" 

False religion is shown in the slave-trader who treats 
his slaves like animals, "common and fine wares", yet sends 



INFLUENCE ON LITEEATUEE 75 

rich presents to the church to ensure future happiness. In 
other contemporary novels of this character the religious 
element is not so strong as here ; and since this is one of the 
distinctive features of Uncle Tom, we may conclude that the 
author consciously incorporated it into his story. 

Hand in hand with the religious goes the anti-slavery 
element, which is shown in the expressions of the slaves and 
in the general atmosphere of the book. The slaves fre- 
quently exclaim, "0 diese Tyrannei!" ''Ach, die Sklave- 
rei!" and descriptions of the sufferings of the slaves show 
the anti-slavery spirit. The Southern attitude toward Abol- 
ition is also clearly defined. America is spoken of as ' ' das 
freie Amerika" in irony, and the slaveship flies the Stars 
and Stripes, ''the symbol of freedom over chained slaves". 

The motive of separation of family plays an important 
part and some of the scenes are equally as jDitiful as in 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, but always overdrawn. 

In the negro dialect the author has imitated Mrs. Stowe 
very well. If translated into English the expressions of the 
slaves might easily be put into the mouths of the negroes in 
Uncle Tom. 

We may conclude, therefore, that the novel was written 
under the inspiration and influence of Uncle Tom's Cabin, 
by a writer who hoped to share in the popularity of novels of 
slave-life, which had been caused by the many translations 
of Mrs. Stowe 's book; and that he is dependent upon it for 
some of the characters, for the religious and anti-slavery 
elements, and for the general description of slave-life.^^ 

(c) Other Minor Writers. 

(1) Eine Nichte Uncle Tom's, nach J. Romer's Denk- 
wilrdigkeiten erzdhlt von Br. Majo (Stuttg., 1854). Al- 
though the story has no connection with Uncle Tom's Cabin, 



»» Cf . Eeview in Bl. f. lit. UnterJi., 1863, No. 23, p. 422, June 4. 



76 UNCLE TOm's cabin 'in GERMANY 

yet the name is used for its title. In Grenzhoten^^ we find a 
notice of the book : 

''Warum der Verfasser auf dem Titel eigentlich an 
den Uncle Tom erinnert ist uns nicht deutlich. Dass eine 
Negerin die zweite Eolle darin spielt, ist doch wohl kein hin- 
reichender Grund. ' ' 

(2) "SMavenleben in Amerika, oder wunderbare Le- 
hensscMcksale eines auf britiscliem Gebiet entkommenen 
ehemaligen Negersklaven, namens John Brown, nacJi dessen 
eigenen Worten deutscli iviedererzdhlt, sowie mit einer Ein- 
leitung uber den dermaUgen Stand der Sklavenfrage ver- 
sehen von Dr. Chr. Fr. Grieb (Stuttg., 1855)." 

This is a strong anti-slavery book. The character of 
John Brown is treated in somewhat the same manner as 
Uncle Tom. He is a quiet, inoffensive negro of religious 
nature, who is sold and ill-treated by several masters and 
eventually attains freedom. The great excitement which 
followed in the wake of Uncle Tom accounts for this book. 
The author wished to show conditions in the United States 
in all their barbarity, and as he believed Mrs. Sto.we had to 
some extent refrained from doing. The fact of* her' influence 
here is proved from the words of the author : 

*'Frau Stowe hat der Welt die Grauel der Sklaverei 
einigermassen enthiillt ; ganz aber ist durch sie der Schleier 
nicht geliiftet worden. Ich meine es muss ihr viel mehr be- 
kannt sein, als sie gesagt hat. Was mich betrifft, so weiss 
ich mehr, als ich zu sagen wage."^^ " 

(3) Mark Sutherland, oder die Wege der Vorsehung. 
Original-Roman von Aug. Schrader (Leipzig, 1856). ^^ 

In the introduction to this narrative Schrader tells us : 



'» 1855, III, p. 173 ; ef . also Bl. f. lit. Unterh., 1854, p. 259. Story pub. in 
Mannh. Unterh. Bl., 1855, No. 155, July 5, to No. 182, Aug. 2, and reviewed in 
same 1854, No. 20, Jan. 25. 

"^P. 63. 

*^Aug. Schrader, formerly Simmel (Wegeleben bei Halberstadt, 1815- 
1878, Leipzig), translator and tutor of modern languages. 



INFLUENCE ON" LITERATURE 77 

"Die Verfasserin von Onkel Tom's Hutte verspracli ein 
Buch unter dem Titel Mark Sutherland zu liefern, nach dem 
ihr erstes Werk fast beispiellosen Erfolg gehabt hat. Man 
harrte jedoch vergebens auf die Erfiillung dieses Verspre- 
cbens. Ermutigt durch die freundliche Aufnahme meines 
Werkes, Die Braut von Louisiana, fasste ich den EntscMuss, 
das von der Amerikanerin angeregte Thema zu bearbeiten, 
und der Braut von Louisiana einen Nacbf olger zu geben. Es 
war von Anfang nicht meine Absicht einen Sklavenroman 
zu schreiben, wie er eine Zeitlang zur Mode geworden, und 
wie er in mannigfaltigen Nachabmungen von Onkel Tom's 
HUt'te ersehienen ist, sondern ich wollte ein Werk liefern, 
das die deutscben Leser mit den Sitten und Gebrauehen der 
Nationen jenseits des Meeres bekannt macht. Ich erlaube 
mir daher zu bemerken, dass mein Werk nur eine rein un- 
terhaltende von jeder Tendenz feme Lectiire liefern soil. 
Mein Eoman ist also kein Pendant zu Onkel Tom's Hiltte, 
sondern ein Seitenstiick zu der Braut von Louisiana." 

It is granted that the book is not a direct imitation of 
Uncle Tom's Cabin, but was doubtless influenced by it in 
the character of "Joe", who resembles Uncle Tom. A re- 
viewer also mentions this fact :^^ 

"Die schandliche, unmenschliche Behandlung des Skla- 
ven ^Joe' erinnert uns, wenigstens an einiges was wir in 
Onkel Tom's Hiitte gelesen, und obwohl es uns unbegreiflich 
ist wie Mrs. H. B. Stowe mit diesem Werke solch einen Er- 
folg erzielen konnte, so lassen wir doch der Amerikanerin 
gern die Gerechtigkeit widerfahren, dass sie sich nur auf 
Schilderungen einliess, die eine genaue Kenntniss ihres Va- 
terlandes beweisen, was man jedoch von Schrader nicht sa- 
gen kann ; er kennt Amerika bios aus Biichern. ' ' 

(4) Aus Amerika, von Julius Frohel (Leipzig, 1856). 
Julius Frobel (1805- ?) was a brother of the well-known 
pedagogue, Friedrich Frobel. He went to America in 1849, 



' Bl. f. lit. Vnterh., 1857, No. 27, July 1, Emanuel Eauff. 



78 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

and was engaged in business in New York, San Francisco 
and other cities until 1857, thus experiencing the excitement 
over the Fugitive Slave Law and the following discussions 
of slavery, which he reflects in his book. His attitude is 
the same as that of Mrs. Stowe. 

(5) Der Amerika-Mude. Amerikanisches KuUurbild 
von Ferdinmid Kiirnberger (Frankfurt am Main, 1856).* 
This is a book of sketches of American life, in which the 
subject of slavery is much discussed. Abolitionists are men- 
tioned by name and are described, and the Quakers are men- 
tioned as people who aided fugitive slaves. A drama is 
described in which slave-traders, abolitionists and slaves 
figure. One of the principal characters in this play is 
named Mrs. Drake Harriet Store, which was probably 
chosen to suggest Mrs. Stowe; and it may be that the play 
referred to was the dramatization of Uncle Tom's Cabin, as 
the plot consists of the attempted capture and escape of a 
mulatto woman. Later in the book a dance is described in 
which Uncle Tom figures as one of the musicians. An- 
other character, the negro Scipio, resembles closely St. 
Clare's valet. 

These facts show that Kiirnberger knew Uncle Tom's 
Cabin, and made use of the characters, names, and to some 
extent, the plot. It is a book of one who had not been in 
America, but as many others drew for his information upon 
the sources at hand in the much-read books describing 
American life. 

(6) Pilgerfahrt nach den Vereinigten Stouten von 
Nord-Amerika. Enthaltend Skizzen uber die dortigen soci- 
alen und politischen Zustdnde wahrend der Jahre 1849-1856 
von C. B. A. Warnefried. (Koln, 1857.) 

Here another writer attempts to describe America and 
its social life, and gleaned his knowledge from books— 
among which Uncle Tom appears to be freely used. 

*Cf., G. A. Mulfinger, Ferd. Kiirnberger 's Eoman, Der Amerikamude 
{German American Annals, Vol I). 



INFLUENCE ON LITERATURE 79 

(7) Briefe aus und uber die Vereinigten Staaten von 
Nord-Amerika an Freunde in der Heimat in geographischer, 
statistischer , landwirtschaftlicher, indwstrieller , commerciel- 
ler, poiitischer und socialer Beziehung, von Karl Schmidt 
(Altenburg, 1857). 

The author of these letters appears to have been a native 
of Leipzig, who spent two years (1854-1856) in America in 
order to write a book. He says that he visited five States 
of the Union, but two of the five only by riding through 
them by train — and yet he writes a book on America with 
the above imposing title ! 

He speaks of his acquaintance with Mrs. Stowe and of 
his friends Charles Sumner and Theodore Parker. There 
is no doubt that this writer wished to write something 
*' popular", and the book is, strictly speaking, a collection 
of the opinions of the day gathered from books and news- 
papers rather than from personal observation and experi- 
ence. The sentiments in regard to slavery are those ex- 
pressed by the anti-slavery leaders, and since he avows an 
acquaintance with Mrs. Stowe, we may be sure that he was 
influenced by her. 

(8) Lebende Bilder aus Amerika, etc. (TuUingen, 1858), 
and Freiheit und Sklaverei unter dem Sternenhanner, oder 
Land und Leute in Amerika (Stuttg., 1862). 

Both of these books are by Karl Theodor Griesinger, 
who went to America in 1852 because politics became un- 
pleasant for him at home, and five years later returned to 
Stuttgart and began to write stories derived from his ex- 
periences. He is an ardent sympathizer with the North, 
and, therefore, could not escape the wide-spreading influence 
of Uncle Tom. 

{§) Sklaverei und Freiheit von Ottilie Ossing (Ham- 
burg, 1860). This is the work of a German woman in New 
York, who tried to write a second Uncle Tom's Cabin. She 
had read the North Star, a paper of which the former slave, 
Frederick Douglas, was editor, and conceived the idea of 



80 UNCLE TOM's cabin IN GEEMANY 

writing the story of his life to help the anti- slavery cause, 
as Uncle Tom had done. The treatment of the slavery 
question and the religious attitude is the same, and the suf- 
ferings of Douglas are described in a very similar manner. 
The purpose is the same which inspired Mrs. Stowe, and the 
story may be called a direct imitation. In UnterhaU'ungen 
am hdusliclien Herd, Fr. Biedermann says in his criticism: 
''Die einfache, schmucklose Darstellung dieses wirklichen 
Sklavenlebens gibt ein nicht minder ergreifendes, durch je- 
den Wegfall romantischen Aufputzes, indess noch viel 
scharferes Bild des amerikanischen Sklaventums als dessen 
bisherige Schilderungen in Beecher-Stowe's OnJcel Tom's 
Eutte.''^^ 

(10) Sklaverei in Amerika, oder scliwarzes Blut, von 
Armand (1862).^° Strubberg or ''Armand" had travelled 
in America, especially in the South, and had ample oppor- 
tunity and ability to write a novel of this kind without help. 
In this and in his other stories of American life, it may be 
that he is independent of Mrs. Stowe; but as he borrowed 
from Cooper we may reasonably suppose that he borrowed 
also from Mrs. Stowe. 

(11) Die Hamburger in Amerika. Roma/ntisch-politi- 
sches Gemdlde aus der Gegenwart und jUngsten Vergangen- 
heit von Moritz ReicJienhach (Hamburg, 1864). 

Moritz Eeichenbach (1804-1870) was an actor and 
writer of popular literature in Hamburg. He shows us 
here a series of critical situations and narrow escapes, of 
which one of the most striking is that in which a young mu- 
latto woman, fleeing with her lover, is pursued by slave- 
hunters and swims across a river. This is a weird scene and 
is so similar in general outline and in detail as to remind 
the reader at once of Eliza crossing the Ohio. The author 
had never been in America, and we recognize the fact in the 



■ 1859, No. 60, p. 771-774. 

'3 Bde., 1. Quadrone, 2. Mulattin, 3. Negerin. 



INFLUENCE ON LITEEATURE 81 

descriptions of slave-life. The book is essentially that of 
a sympathizer with the anti-slavery movement as well as of 
a writer of popular stories, and its dependence upon Uncle 
Tom's Cabin is clear, although the book is not mentioned. 

(12) Weiss und Schwarz. Historische Erzahlung aus 
der ersten Zeit des S onderbundkrieges in Nordameriha, von 
Friedr. Wilhelm Arming (Leipzig, 2 Bde., 1865). This is the V^ 
only example of a book written in favor of the South. It is 

an imitation of those written in opposition to Uncle Tom — 
such as Aunt Phillis' Cabin, Tit for Tat, etc. 

(13) AmeriJcanische Lebensbilder, oder Erlebnisse 
deutscher Awswanderer in Ameri'ka, geschildert von Luise 
TFei?(Stuttg., 1865). 

The first story in this collection is entitled the Deut- 
scher Sklavenhalter. Haller, a Southern slaveholder sells 
his slave-daughter, Nelly, and separates her from her lover, 
Harry. She flees with Dinah, an old slave, and is sheltered 
by Onkel Levi and Tante Katy, Quakers — a situation the 
same as that of Eliza. The old Quaker publishes the story 
in a newspaper, but says that the girl sought death in the 
Eed River rather than be a slave, and thus Harry is able to 
trace her. The outline of the story and the situations are 
entirely dependent upon Uncle Tom's Cabin, and the names 
Harry, Dinah and Nelly are used for George, Chloe and 
Eliza. 

(14) Der Sklavenhdndler. Original-Roman aus den 
Papieren eines Touristen, von Ludwig Heinrich (Breslau, 
1867). 

Slave trade in South America is described in the neigh- 
borhood of Rio Janeiro. The condition of the negroes is 
graphically pictured, and the slave-dealer is a man of more 
repulsive nature than either of the traders in Uncle Tom. 

A definite influence can hardly be pointed out, but the 
general wave of interest in slavery, caused by Mrs. Stowe 's 
book, no doubt was the inspiration of the novel. 



82 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

(15) Die Konigm der Flusspiraten, historisch-roman- 
tische Original-N ovelle von Wilhelm Schroter (Leipzig, 2 
Bde., 18— ?). 

•The beautiful young daughter of a farmer on the banks 
of the Ked Eiver is captured by pirates on the Mississippi 
and kept a prisoner. Her name is Eva, a fact which at once 
suggests dependence upon Mrs. Stowe. The author de- 
scribes her as similar in character. One of the pirates is 
named "Tom", and he is a man who is not entirely in sym- 
pathy with his companions, for he aids the rescue party as 
much as he dares, and acts as a protector to Eva, when the 
other pirates threaten her harm. 

There are many books which appeared in the years 
1853 to 1870, which stood under the general wide-spread in- 
fluence of Uncle Tom's Cabin, and were called forth by the 
new interest in America ; but the above examples suffice to 
show that the sudden popularity of the slavery question led 
many an obscure and unknown writer to venture on the 
subject, and even those who had no ability and who knew 
nothing about America, except what they had read, tried 
to share in the great speculation from which many, espe- 
cially the booksellers, benefited pecuniarily. 

4. Juvenile Literature. 

The editions for children of Uncle Tom's Cabin were 
spoken of with little enthusiasm by some of the critics. The 
Preussische Zeitung, Berlin,^® does not find the book "ein 
passender Stoff fiir jugendliche Gemuter", but it was never- 
theless as popular with the young as it was with the old, as 
the number of abridgements shows.^^ The people who read 
the book in their youth remember it well and formed their 
idea of life in the Southern States from the descriptions; 
and besides this the book exerted so great an influence, in 



^ 1852, No. 287, Dec. 10. 

»' Cf., also Treuss. Ztng., 1853, No. 116, May 22. Beu. Mus., 1853, II, No. 
47, p. 772. 



INFLUENCE OF LITERATUEE 83 

some cases, as to lead the readers to go to America. Of 
this fact we have been assured by Germans in America, as 
well as by their relatives in the home country. 

The abridgement by Max Schasler is spoken of as 
follows :^^ 

''Die Einfiihrung einer Erzahlung in der Person der 
'Tante Marie', welche ihren Nichten, 'Katchen' und 'Aen- 
chen', so wie ihrem Neffen, 'Georg', die Geschichte Onkel 
Tom's vorliest, ware gewiss eine gliickliche, wenn die eng- 
lisclie Original-Ausgabe diesen Personen einen grosseren 
Spielraum gegeben hatte. Sie treten aber nur einmal, am 
Anfange auf, und verschwinden dann ganzlich. Der deut- 
sche Bearbeiter lasst aber daher in zweckmassiger Art diese 
Personen bei jeder wichtigen Epoche der Erzahlung wieder 
auftreten und ihre Ansichten iiber den Inhalt des Gelesenen 
in einer Weise mit einander austauschen, dass dadurch fiir 
die Enwickelung der Intelligenz und der Sittlichkeit der 
jugendlichen Leser ein positives Resultat erzielt werde. 
Audi hat er Vieles, was iiber den Gesichtskreis der Jugend 
zu weit hinausging, entweder in verstandlichere Form ge- 
bracht oder ganz unterdriickt, wie besonders die oft wieder- 
kehrenden Gesprache iiber Sklaverei mit Eiicksicht auf ihre 
politischen und anderweitigen Folgen; Fragen die fiir ein 
Kind, besonders aber fiir ein Kind Deutschlands mindes- 
tens inhaltsleer und langweilig sein miissen. * * * Es 
ist auch eine sehr gliickliche Wendung am Schlusse, dass 
der deutsche Bearbeiter den guten, ehrlichen Tom am Ende 
fiir seinen christlichen Mut und seine Beharrlichkeit geret- 
tet werden lasst. Die Bearbeitung ist ersichtlich mit grosser 
Sorgfalt, der man die tJbersetzung nirgends ausfiihlt, und 
mit anerkennenswerter Reinheit und Kraft der Sprache 
durchgef lihrt. ' ' 

We have seen that Uncle Tom was imitated by the 
writers of the day, and by those who would gladly be counted 
among that number, and it is a very natural conclusion to 



'Freuss. Zing., 1853, No. 116, May 22. 



84 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

reach, that also in the juvenile literature there were imita- 
tions. We have only to name a few of these to prove this : 

Der schtvarze Sam, oder MenscJienraub in Amerika, von 
Jul. Hoffmann. Fine Erzdhhmg fur die Jugend (Breslan, 
1854-1855) ; Der Sklave, von C. Hildehrand, fUr die Jugend 
(Leipzig, 1853) ; Donawe, oder Schicksale eines Negerskla- 
ven, fiir die Jugend, von Phil. Korher (Niirnberg, 1856) ; 
Loango, von Fr. Hoffmann (Stuttg., 1853) ; und Ein Kongo 
Neger, eine Geschichte aus Sanct. Domingo, fiir die Jugend, 
von W. D. Horn {Fr. W. Ortel, Wiesbaden, 1854). 

These are only examples of the many stories for 
children which appeared from 1852 to 1860, and under the 
influence of this new kind of novel the story of slave-life. 



VII. Conclusion. 

The influence of anti-slavery, represented by Uncle 
Tom's Cabin, which showed" itself strongly in the popular 
literature of the day, did not pass over the people at large 
without leaving impressions more or less deep behind. There 
is no doubt that there existed in Europe as in America 
those who were almost fanatical enthusiasts over anti- 
slavery, but the general impression of the more or less edu- 
cated was that the condition of affairs in the United States 
was deeply to be deplored, and all efforts at betterment 
should be aided, but that the moral applied to the situation 
in the homeland also. This is the tone of the editorials. 

Heine complained twenty years before the appearance 
of Uncle Tom's Cabin: "0, Freiheit! Du bist ein boser 
Traum!" The desire to reveal society in its true light in- 
spired Hacklander. 

The opinions of readers are valuable. George Sand 
published under her own supervision the authorized French 
version of the book. She was an enthusiast, and her entire 
circle of friends could not escape the influence of her inter- 



CONCLUSION 85 

est and enthusiasm when it was aroused. She says of Mrs. 
Stowe:^^ 

'^Mrs. Stowe is all instinct; it is the very reason that 
she appears to some not to have talent. Has she not talent? 
What is talent? Nothing, doubtless compared to genius; 
but has she genius ? I cannot say that she has talent, as one 
understands it in the world of letters ; but she has genius, 
as humanity feels the need of genius— the genius of good- 
ness, not that of the man of letters, but of the saint. — Pure, 
penetrating and profound, the spirit which thus fathoms the 
recesses of the human soul. Noble, generous and great the 
heart which embraces in her pity, in her love, an entire race, 
trodden down in the blood and mire under the whip of 
ruffians and maledictions of the impious. Thus should it be, 
thus should we value things ourselves. We feel that genius 
is heart, that power is faith, that talent is sincerity, and 
finally that success is sympathy, since this book overcomes 
us, since it penetrates the breast, pervades the spirit, and 
fills us with a strange sentiment of mingled tenderness and 
admiration for a poor negro lacerated by blows, prostrate 
in the dust, there gasping on a miserable pallet his last sigh 
exhaled toward God." 

The poet Heine admired the genius of George Sand 
and counted her among his friends, and it is probable that 
this authorized French version was the Uncle Tom which 
he read. From his own words it is clear that his feelings 
on reading the story were sympathy with the anti-slavery 
cause, admiration for the author, who had had the courage 
to attack the great evil which was continually gnawing at 
the roots of society in America, and recognition of the black 
man as a human being and a spiritual brother. He says in 
his Geitdndnisse.'^^^ 

''Nachdem ich mein gauzes Leben hindurch mich auf 
alien Tanzboden der Philosophie herumgetrieben, alien Or- 



»' Old South Leaflets, No. 82, p. 18. 

*"» jffemncTi Heine, SammtUche WerTce; hg. v. E. Elster; Bd. 6, p. 54, 56, 
Bibl. Inst. 



86 UNCLE TOM's cabin in GERMANY 

gien des Geistes micli hingegeben, mit alien moglichen 
Systemen gebulilt, ohne befriedigt worden zu sein, wie Mes- 
saline nach einer liederliclien Nacht, jetzt befinde ich mich 
plotzlich auf demselben Standpunkt, worauf auch der Onkel 
Tom stelit; auf dem der Bibel, und ich kniee neben dem 
schwarzen Bruder nieder in derselben Andaclit. 

''Welclie Demutigung ! mit all' meiner Wissenschaft 
habe ich es niclit weiter gebracht, als der arme unwissende 
Neger, der kauni buchstabieren gelernt! Der arme Tom 
scheint freilich in dem heiligen Buche noch tiefere Dingen 
zu sehen, als ich dem besonders die letzte Partie noch nicht 
ganz klar geworden. 

'^Tom versteht sie vielleicht besser, weil mehr Priigel 
darin vorkommen, namlich jene unaufhorlichen Peitschen- 
hiebe, die mich manchmal bei der Lectiire der Evangelien 
und der Apostelgeschichte sehr unasthetisch anwiderten — 
so ein armer Negersklave liest zugleich mit dem Eiicken, 
und begreift daher viel besser als wir. * * * yLan sieht, 
ich, der ich ehemals den Homer zu citieren pflegte, ich citiere 
jetzt die Bibel, wie der Onkel Tom.^^ 

Emigration to America was influenced not only by the 
thought of the day, but also by the current literature, both 
original and translations. The disappointment of '48 led 
many to seek in the New World the ideal of liberty, which 
they had failed to realize at home, and the agitation for free- 
dom continued by the anti-slavery literature, occasioned 
many a crossing the sea to fight for the cause either in public 
life or on the battlefield. The names of Carl Schurz and 
Franz Sigel among many others will always be recorded in 
the history of America as eminent men, who helped to shape 
the future of the country. Otto von Corvin, a leader in the 
Eevolution of '48, was in America during the Civil War and 
corresponded during that period for the Allgemeine Zei- 
tung, thus keeping his friends and countrymen in close 
touch with the struggle which had won their sympathy. 

Had Uncle Tom's Cabin not been written, this sym- 
pathy would have remained passive and slow; but as we 



CON-CLIJSION- 87 

have seen, wherever the book was read, it awakened an 
active interest, and as we have been assured by many whose 
relatives and friends went to the United States in the crit- 
ical period before the war, the excitement which followed 
the reading of Uncle Tom's Cabin was one of the factors 
which worked in their decision to make the journey. 

The influence of Mrs. Stowe's book in Germany, as 
traced through its various forms, arriving opportunely, was 
a force which could not be restrained. ' It was a force which 
showed itself in the vast number of translations and edi- 
tions which overwhelmed the book market, and which were 
not restricted merely to the period of popularity of the 
book, but have continued to appear down to the present 
year. In this surprising number of translations are found 
the names of well-known authors, and editions published for 
all prices and all kinds of readers. 

This is also the case in other languages. In English 
the editions are almost numberless. In twenty-one diiferent 
languages Uncle Tom has appeared, and there is every in- 
dication that this number will increase in years to come, for 
the sake of the interest in the book itself, although the work 
for which it was designed has long been accomplished. 

We have seen the influence of the book expressed in the 
public indignation and pity at the horrors which it describes, 
in notice, criticism and review. Some are incredulous that 
such barbarity really existed, some deplore the ''Schwar- 
merei fiir das Fremde ' ', but the great majority express sym- 
pathy for the New World in its struggle with the great 
problem, and admiration for Mrs. Stowe, who lifted the veil 
from the situation at the critical moment. 

Hacklander's book may be called the German Uncle 
Tom's Cahin, in that his purpose was that of Mrs. Stowe, 
and he acknowledges his indebtedness to her. Auerbach 
was influenced in portrayal of character, and in his 
attitude toward slavery, which he expresses in discussion 
and situation. The almost countless minor imitations show 
how deep this interest in America aroused by Mrs. Stowe 



0» UNCLE TOM S CABIN IN GERMANY 

had reached. The public wished details, further knowledge, 
and these the many minor writers attempted to offer, gener- 
ally merely working over the material at hand instead of 
presenting new. By many of these writers Uncle Tom is 
recognized as their inspiration, but by others it is con- 
sciously denied in order to escape the accusation. Then, too, 
the wide-spread presentation of the story in dramatic form 
shows the intensity of the influence. The fact that it was 
presented in Munich thirty times, played twice daily, gives 
a picture of the enthusiasm for the play. 

In time ''Uncle Tom" was used as a name for anything 
which the merchant wished to make popular, and even now 
there is a restaurant in the suburbs of Berlin which bears 
the name! There were pictures and poems, ballads and 
dances, by the name and illustrating the book, and satirists 
called the enthusiasm "Onkel Tommerei"; but this all 
serves to show how deep was the wave of excitement which 
came over the Atlantic. The opinions of readers, a glance at 
the tide of immigration shows this also, and it is safe to as- 
sert that in Germany no other American novel has been as 
widely read by all classes of people, and has had so great 
an influence as Uncle Tom's Cabin. 



VIII. Appendix. 
1. List of Eeviews and Notices consulted, 
(a) Eeviews and Notices of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 
Allgemeine Zeitung, Augsburg. 

Beilage 1852, No. 281, October 7. Long review. 

Beilage 1852, No. 282, October 8. Long review. 

Beilage 1852, No. 303, October 29. White Slave com- 
pared to Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

Beilage 1852, No. 320, November 15. Biography of 
Mrs. Stowe. 

Beilage 1852, No. 321, November 16. Biography of 
Mrs. Stowe. 

Beilage 1852, No. 331, November 26. Publisher's no- 
tice. 

Ausserordentliche Beilage 1852, No. 351, December 16. 
Eeview of Du Bois trans. 

'beilage 1852, No'. 495, December 25. Pub. adv. 

Beilage 1853, No. 95 April 5. Theater. 

Beilage 1853, No. 186, July 5. Mrs. Stowe in Europe. 

Beilage 1853, No. 233, August 21. Notice. 

Beilage 1853, No. 250, September 7. Journey. 

Beilage 1853, No. 260, September- 17. Mentions Mrs. 
Stowe. 

Beilage 1854, No. 51, February 20. Notice. 

Das Ausland. Ein Tageblatt fur Kunde des geistigen und 
sittlichen Lebens der Volker. 

1852, II, No. 237, October 2, p. 948. Notice. 

1853, 1, No. 21, May 27, p. 485. Long review. 

1853, 1, No. 21, May 27, p. 489. Notice. 

1854, 1, No. 8, February 24, p. 180. Notice and discuss, 
slavery. 

1854, 1, No. 26, June 30, p. 622. Notice. 

1854, II, No. 29, July 4, p. 695. Notice. 

(89) 



90 UNCLE TOM's cabin IN GERMANY 

1854, II, No. 34, August 25, p. 803. Notice. 

1855, II, No. 33, August 17, p. 773. Notice and discuss, 
slavery. 

Badische Landeszeitung. 

1852, No. 307, December 30. Notice. 

1853, No. 6, January 8. Notice. 
1853, No. 16, January 20. Notice. 
1853, No. 31, February 6. Notice. 
1853, No. 47, February 25. Verses. 
1853, No. 69, March 23. Notice, journey. 
1853, No. 83, April 10. Notice, journey. 
1853, No. 99, April 29. Notice, journey. 

1853, No. 119, May 25. Mrs. St. personal appear. 
1853, No. 170, July 24. Notice, journey. 
1853, No. 187, August 13. Theater. 

1853, No. 240, October 16. Notice, journey. 

1854, No. 66, March 18. Notice. 
1854, No. 251, October 27. Notice. 

Blatter filr Literarische Unterhaltung. 

1852, II, No. 52, December 25, p. 1239. Notice. 

1853, I, No. 2, January 8, p. 35-6. Long review. 
1853, 1, No. 24, June 11. Notice. 

1854, 1, No. 6, February 2, p. 113. Notice. 

1857, 1, No. 27, July 1. Mention. 

1869, II, No. 39, September 22, p. 622. Mention. 

Beilage Blatter zum Eeidelherger Journal. 

1852, No. 139, November 14. Notice. 

1853, No. 4, January 9. Theater notice. 
1853, No. 9, January 21. Notice and mention. 
1853, No. 40, April 3. 

1853, No. 65, June 5. Mrs. Stowe personal appear. 
1853, No. 125, October 23. Adv. 

Beilage zum Mainzer Journal. 

1852, No. 293, December 10. Notice. 



APPENDIX 91 

Bas Pfennig Magazin. 
1852, p. 492. Eeview. 

1852, p. 400. Notice and critcism. 

Deutsches Museum. Zeitschrift fiir Lit. Kunst, u. offentl. 
Leben, hg. v. Eobt. Pruss, Lpz. 
1853, 1, No. 5, p. 189. Notice and Criticism. 

1853, I, No. 35, p. 330. Mrs. St. personal appear. 
1853, II, No. 47, p. 772. Eeview of ed. for children. 

Europa. Chronik der gebildeten Welt, hg. v. F. Gustav 

Kiihne. 
1852, No. 92, November 11. Notice. 
1852, No. 96, November 25. Notice. 
1852, No. 101, December 16. Notice. 

1852, No. 103. Pub. notice. 

1853, No. 2, January 7. Long notice. 
1853, No. 5, p. 32. Theater. 

1853, No. 11, February 3, p. 88. Theater. 
1853, No. 14, February 10, p. 112. Theater. 
1853, No. 20, p. 160. Notice. 
1853, No. 54, p. 431. Notice. 

1853, No. 57, p. 448. Notice. 

1854, No. 19, March 2. Notice. 

Frankfurter Intelligenzhlatt, Frankfurt a/M. 

1852, 2 BeiL, No. 237, October 6. Adv. 

1852, 4 Beil., No. 261, November 3. Long notice. 

1852, 3 Beil., No. 269, November 12. Notice. 

1852, 5 Beil., No. 283, November 28. Biography Mrs. 
Stowe. 

1852, 3 Beil., No. 297, December 15. Adv. 

1852, No. 302, December 21. Adv. 

1852, No. 303, December 22. Adv. and notice. 

1852, 3 Beil., No. 308, December 29. Theater. 

1853, 4 Beil., No. 7, January 7. Theater. 
1853, No. 8, January 11. Editorial mention. 
1853, 2 Beil., No. 11, January 14. Notice. 



92 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

1853, 1 BeiL, No. 20, January 25. Adv. 

1853, 4 BeiL, No. 21, January 26. Notice, theater. 

1853, 3 BeiL, No. 35, February 11. 

1853, 4 BeiL, No. 41, February 18. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 42, February 19. Theater adv. 

1853, 3 BeiL, No. 127, June 1. Notice. 

Frankfurter Konversationsblatt. Belletristische Beilage 

zur Postzeitung. 

1852, No. 272, November 13, p. 1088. Eeview. 

1853, No. 42, February 17. Theater adv. 
1853, No. 43, February 19. Theater adv. 
1853, No. 44, February 21. Theater adv. 

Freiburger Zeitung. 

1852, No. 281, November 26, p. 1096. Notice. 

1853, No. 3, January 4. Notice. 

1853, No. 43, February 19, p. 171-2. Notice. 

1853, No. 44, February 20, p. 174. Notice. 

1853, No. 50, February 27, p. 197. Notice. 

1853, No. 52, March 2, p. 205-6. Eeview, biography. 

1853, No. 53, March 3. Notice. 

1853, No. 56, March 6. Notice. 

1853, No. 59, March 10. Notice. 

1853, No. 60, March 11. Notice. 

1853, No. 115, May 15, p. 476. Notice. 

Gartenlauhe. 

1853, No. 3, p. 32. Short review. 
1853, No. 14, p. 154. Mention. 
1853, No. 229, p. 319. Notice. 

Grenzhoten. 

1852, IV, p. 479. Theater notice. 
1852, IV, p. 189-190. Eeview. 
1852, IV, p. 317. Eeview. 
1855, 1, p. 411. Notice. 



APPENDIX 93 

Illustrirte Zeitung, Leipzig. 

1852, No. 483, October 2. Adv. 

1852, No. 484, October 9. Notice and adv. 

1852, No. 486. Notice. 

1852, No. 488, November 27. Notice. 

1852, No. 491. Poem and adv. 

1852, No. 492, December 4. Adv. 

1852, No. 495, December 25. Notice. 

1853, No. 497, January 8. Notice. 

1853, No. 499, January 15. Theater and notice. 

1853, No. 500. Adv., illustr. 

1853, No. 506. Notice. 

1853, No. 509, April 2. Adv. 

1853, No. 510, April 9. Adv. 

1853, No. 511-520, April 16, June 18. Illustr. adv. 

1853, No. 519, June 11. Notice. 

1853, No. 528, August 13. Notice, journey. 

1853, No. 532, September 10. Music and Notice. 

1853, No. 547, December 24. Adv. 

Konstanzer Zeitung. 

1852, Beil., No. 307. December 24. Adv. 

1853, Beil., No. 147, June 26. Notice in discussion. 

Literaturhlatt. Menzel, Stuttg. 

1853, No. 2, January 5, p. 5, ff. Eeview. 

Magazin fur die Literatur des Auslandes. Berl. J. Lebmann. 

1852, No. 138, November 16, p. 549-60. Biography and 
review. 

1852, No. 139, November 18, p. 554-5. Biography and 
review. 

1852, No. 144, November 30, p. 576. Notice. 

1853, No. 4, January 8. Notice ed. for children. 
1853, No. 56, May 10. Theater. 

1853, No. 68, June 7. Notice. 

1853, No. 70, June 11. Notice. 

1853, No. 75, June 23. Mrs. St. personal appear. 



94 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEBMANY 

1853, No. 87, July 21. Notice. 
1853, No. 121. Mentions U. T. C. 
1853, No. 135. Mentions U. T. C. 

Maimer Journal. 

1852, No. 283-286. Theater adv. 

1852, No. 300. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 6, 7. Theater adv. 
1853, No. 21, 22. Pub. adv. 
1853, No. 42, 43. Theater adv. 
1853, No. 112. Notice, journey. 

MannJieimer Unterhaltungshlatt. Belletristische Beilage 
zum Mannheimer Journal, hg. v. Dr. E. H. Th. Hahn. 
1852, No. 246-303, October 15uDecember 21. Notice and 

V. T. C. 

1852, No. 254, October 25. Notice. 

1852, No. 263, November 4. Notice. 

1853, No. 13, January 15. Biography. 
1853, No. 121, May 23. Note. 

1855, No. 295, December 12. Notice. 
1855, No. 299, December 17. Notice. 

Minerva. Ein Journal fiir Geschichte, Politik, u. Literatur 
V. Dr. Fr. Brau. Jena. 

1852, IV, p. 267-321. Long review. 

Morgenhlatt fiir gehildete Leser. 

1853, No. 8, February 20, p. 137. Notice. 

1853, No. 19, May 8, p. 449-451. Long review and thea- 
ter notice. 

Neue Preussische Zeitung. Berlin. 

1852, No. 279, December 1. Eeview. 
1852, No. 287, December 10. Notice. 
1852, No. 283-286, December 5-13. Theater adv. 

1852, No. 300-304, December 25-31. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 1-7, January 1-9. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 5, January 7. Theater adv. and criticism. 



APPENDIX 95 

1853, No. 10, January 13. Notice, journey. 

1853, No. 11-12, January 14-15. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 21, January 26. Adv. 

1853, No. 24, January 29. Adv. and notice. 

1853, No. 31, February 6. Theater adv. 

1853, No. 35, February 11. Notice. 

1853, No. 98, April 29. Adv. 

1853, No. 99, April 30. Adv. 

1853, No. 104, May 5. Notice. 

1853, No. 110, May 14. Notice, journey. 

1853, No. 116, May 22. Review ed. children. 

1853, No. 121, May 28. Mrs. Stowe pers. app. 

1854, No. 105, May 5. Notice. 

Rheinische Blatter fur Unterhaltung und gemeinniitziges 
Leben. Ein Beiblatt zum Mainzer Journal. 

1852, No. 290, December 7, p. 1159. Notice. 

1853, No. 54, March 5, p. 216. Theater advs. 
1853, No. 55, March 6, p. 220. Theater advs. 

Saga. Stiddeutsche Wochenschrift fur Ernst u. Scherz auf 
dem Gebiete der Politik, der Literatur u. des offent- 
lichen Lebens v. K. Schochlin. Karlsruhe. 
1853, No. 5, July 31, p. 37. Notice, journey. 
1853, No. 9, August 26, p. 69. Notice. 
1853, No. 11, September 11, p. 85. Theater. 
1853, No. 12, September 18, p. 93; Notice, journey. 

Unterhaltung en am hduslichen Herd, hg. v. Karl Gutzkow. 
1853, 1, No. 7. Long review. 
1853, 1, No. 13, p. 208, Notice and criticism. 
1853, 1, No. 23. Notice and criticism. 
1854, 1, No. 46, p. 735. Notice and criticism. 
1864, II, No. 19, p. 375-6. Criticism. 

Wochenhlatt fiir die grossherzoglichen Bezirke Baden und 

Buhl. 

1852, No. 130, October 28, p. 863. Pub. adv. 

1853, No. 5, January 11. Pub. adv. 



96 UNCLE TOm's cabin in GERMANY 

(b) Eeviews of the Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

BadiscJie Landeszeitung. 
1853, No. 76, April 2. 
1853, No. 110, May 13, p. 453. 

Beilage Blatter zum Heidelberger Journal. 
1853, No. 40, April 3. 

Magazin fur die Literatur des Auslandes. Berl. J. Lehmann. 
1853, No. 43, April 9, p. 171-2. 

Mainzer Journal. 

1853, No. 88, April 13. Adv. 

Rheinische Blatter. Beiblatt zum Mainzer Journal. 
1853, No. 109, May 9, p. 435. 

2. Bibliography, 
(a) General References. 

1. Otto V. Corvin, 1848-1871. Geschichte der Neuzeit. 2 

Bde. 2 Aufl. Lpz. 1887. 

2. W. J. Dawson. The Makers of Eng. Fiction. London, 

1905. 

3. B. Estvdn. Kriegsbilder aus Amerika v. B. Estvan, 

Oberst der Cavalerie der Confoderirten Armee. Th. 
2, s. 211. Lpz. 1864. Brockhaus. 

4. E. P. Evans. Beitrage zur amerikanischen Lit.- u. Kul- 

turgeschichte. Stuttg., 1898. Cotta. 

5. Kumo Francke. Social Forces in German Lit. N. Y., 

1899. H. Holt & Co. 

6. Fr. Kreytzig. Vorlesungen uber den deutschen Eoman 

der Gegenwart. Berlin, 1871. 

7. H. Mielhe. Der deutsche Roman des 19 Jhts. Braun- 

schweig, 1890 und 1898. 

8. Karl Rehorn. Der deutsche Eoman — Geschichtliche 

EtLckblicke u. kritische Streiflichter. Koln und Lpz., 
1890. s.89fe. 



APPENDIX 97 

9. Constantin Sander. GescMchte des vierjalirigen Biir- 
gerkrieges in den Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika. 
Frankfurt a/M., 1865. 

10. Julian Schmidt. Geschiclite der deu. Lit. v. Leibnitz 

bis auf nnsere Zeit ; Bd. 5, s. 587-8. Berlin, 1896. 

11. Walther Schumann. Leitfaden zum Studium der Lit. der 

Vereinigten Staaten v. Am. Giessen, 1905. E. Eoth. 

12. Georg Weber. Weltgescbiclite. 2 Aufl. Bd. 15, Th. 1, s. 

549. Lpz., 1889. Engelmann. 

13. Barrett Wendell. A Literary History of America. Lon- 

don, 1901. 

14. W. Werenherg. Der deutsclie Tendenz-Eoman. Bl. fiir 

lit. Unterh. 1853. s. 49-51. 

15. Geo. W. Williams. History of Negro Eace in Am., 1619- 

1880. 

16. Wilson. Eise and Fall of the Slave Power in America. 

Vol. II, p. 519 ff. 

17. W. Wintzler. Die Vereinigten Staaten in Kampfe fiir 

Freiheit u. Humanitat. Grenzboten 1898. 

(b) Mrs. H. B. Stoive and Uncle Tom's Cabin. 

1. Chas. Ed. Stowe. Life of Harriet Beecber-Stowe. Bos- 

ton and New York, 1889, 1890. Houghton Mifflin & 
Co. 

2. Mrs. Anne Field. Life and Letters of Mrs. Stowe, 1898. 

3. Florine Thayer McCray. The Lifework of the Author 

of Uncle Tom's Cabin. 1889, 1890; New York. Funk 
& Wagnalls. Eeviewed in Mag. of Am. Hist., Vol. 23, 
p. 16. 

4. Uncle Tom's Cabin, Eeview — North Am. Rev. by S. G. 

Fisher. 1853. Oct. Vol. 77, p. 446. 

5. Uncle Tom's Cabin. Eeview Fraser's Mag., by Arthur 

Helps. 1852. Vol. 46, pp. 237-244. 

6. Appleton's Encyclopedia of Am. Biogr., pp. 713-14. 

New York, 1888. 



98 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GERMANY 

7. Frank S. Arnett. Fifty years of Uncle Tom. Munsey's 

Mag. 1902, p. 897-902. 

8. Henry A. Beers. Lit. and Civil War. Allan. Mon. 

1901, Dec. 

9. Uncle Tom's Cabin, new ed., 1878 and 1882, with Bibli- 

ogTaphy, by Geo. Bullen. New York, Houghton Mif- 
flin & Co. 

10. Paul Lester Ford. The Am. Hist. Novel. Atlan. Mon. 

1897, Vol. 80. 

11. L. V. Krohow. Am. characters in German Novels. 

Atlan. Mon., 1891, Dec. ; 1892, Jan. 

(c) Translations. 

1. Brinkmann's Catalogns der Boeken, Plaat en Kaarte- 

verken door E. van der Meulln. Amsterdam, 1850- 
1882. 

2. British Museum Catalogue of Printed Books. London, 

Wm. Clowe & Sons. 

3. B rummer. Lex. den. Dichter u. Prosaisten d. 19. Jhts., 

2Bde. Lpz., 1896. Eeclam. 

4. Catalago Generale della Liberia Italiana Milano. 

5. Catalogue Generale de la Librarie francaise, Lorenz — 

Paris Librarie Nilsson. 

6. Heinsius. . Biicherlexicon. Lpz., Brockhaus. 

7. Hinrichs. Katalog, u. s. w. Lpz., Hinrichs. 

8. Kayser. Biicherlexicon. 

9. Pataky. Lexicon deutscher Frauen der Feder. Berlin, 

1898. 
10. Svenskt. Boklexicon. Stockholm, 1884. 

3. Translations and Eeviews of the other works of Mrs. 

Stowe. 

(a) Translations. 

1. 1853 — Die Maihlume. Bilder u. Charaktere, 16° 
(XVIII, 336^). Berlin, Duncker n. Humblot. 



APPENDIX 99 

2. 1853 — Maibliimchen, oder Am. Skizzen u. Erzahlungen 

aus d. Engl. 8° (III, 178«). Leipzig, Kittler. 

3. 1855 — Das Maibliimchen, oder Skizzen u. Scenen von 

Charakteren unter den Nachkommen der Pilger v. H. 
B. Stowe (geb. Beecher), mit einer Vorrede v. Cathe- 
rine Beecher. Stereotyp ausg. 1. und 2. Aufl. m. d. 
Portrait der Verfasserin, Bd. 7, neue Volhshibl. hg. v. 
Aug. Schrader. 8° (IX, 139^). Leipzig, Friedlein. 

4. 1853 (?) — Dred. Eine Erzahl. aus d. grossen Sclireck- 

enssiimpfe, v. H. B. Stowe. Ins Den. iibertragen, v. 

A. Kretschmar; 7 Bde. (180; 183; 202; 196; 183; 200; 
192«) ; Bde. 992-998. Europ. Bibl. d. neuen belletr. Lit. 
DeutscM. u. Frankreichs, u. s. w. Wurzen, Verlags- 
comptoir. 

5. 1856 — Dred. Eine Erzahl. aus dem grossen Dismal- 

siimpfe. Bd. 10. NeueVolkshibl. 1859 also? 8° (X, 
358^ ) . Leipzig, Friedlein. 

6. 1856 — Dred. Eine Erzahl. aus d. grossen Wlisten- 

moore, aus d. Engl, ubers. v. Marie Heine. 3 Bde., 
1856-1857. Leipzig, Kollmann. 

7. 1856 — Dred. Eine Erzahl. aus amerik. Sumpfen, v. H. 

B. Stowe. 2 Bde. (328, 326^), gr. 12. Die Romanzei- 
tung, Bibl. der vorzuglichen Romane des In- u. Aus- 
landes; hg. v. Aug. Zang; 2 Jahrg. Wien, Ludwig u. 
Zang. 

8. 1856, lS^W)—Dred. Eine Erzahl. aus d. grossen Dis- 

malsumpfe. 2 Bde. (in 1 Bd.), gr. 8° (V, 583^). Bos- 
ton, Philadelphia, U. S. A., Schafer u. Koradi. 

9. 1859(!) — Des Predigers Braiitwerbung, v. H. B. Stowe, 

deu. V. b. Kretschmar. 4 Bde., Europ. Bibl. der neuen 
belletr. Lit., XI. Serie, 1087-1090 (1851-1856). Wur- 
zln, Verlags-Comptoir. 

10. 1901 — Des Predigers Brautwerbung, aus d. Engl, neu 

bearb. Ausg. 8°, 479^ Leipzig, F. Jansa. 

11. 1S67— Blatter uber Haus u. Heim, aus d. Engl. 8°, 184^ 

Brandenburg, Wieseke. 



100 UNCLE TOM^S CABIN IN GEKMANY 

12. 1870 — Die Leute von Oldtown. Eoman aus d. Engl. 

"iibers. v. J. N. Heynrichs (Jenny Ilirsch). Autorausg. 
4 Bde., 8° (255; 249; 233; 227^). Berlin, Janke. 

13. 1869 — Kleine Fuchse, oder die kleinen Fehler, welche 

das hausl. Gliick storen; aus d. Engl. 16°, 143^. 

1873— 224^ 16°, m. Goldsclm. 

1874— 182^ 8°, m. 4 Bildern u. Lichtdr. 

1878—224% 4 Aufl. Cart. m. Goldschn. 

1887— 182% 8°, m. 4 Lichtdr. Taf. 

1908—192% kl. 8°, 11 Aufl., Kart. m. Goldsclm. 
Giitersloh, Bertelsmann. 

14. 1870 — Hermine Frank. Familien Silhouetten, frei 

tJbertr. u. Bearb. d. Little Foxes, by Mrs. H. B. 
Stowe; gr. 16°, 232^ Frankfurt a/M. 

15. 1871 — Das Pathchen der Palmweide, aus dem Amerik. 

16° (160% m. 1 Holzschn. Taf.) Giitersloh, Bertels- 
mann. 

16. 1876 — Wir u. unsere Nachharn, u. s. w., deu. v. Emil Leh- 

mann; 2 Bde. (311; 309^). Neue helletr. Lese-'Cahinet 
der hesten u. interessant. Romane alter Nationen No. 
1599-1614. Wien, Hartleben. 

17. 1895-6 — Wir u. unsere Nachharn, u. s. w., v. H. B. Stowe. 

3 Bde. (160 ; 159 ; 176^). Coll. Hartleben Ausw. d. her- 
vorrag. Romane alter Nationen. Wien, Hartleben. 

18. 1881 — Morgen hommt E. R., v. Mrs. H. Beecher-Stowe, 

aus d. Engl. 8°, 12^. Barmen, Wiemann. 

19. 1892— (7/^as. E. Stowe, H. B. Stowe, Briefe u. Tage- 

biicher, hg. v. C. E. Stowe ; deu. v. Margarethe Jacohi; 
gr. 8° (VIII, 311% m. Bildnis). Gotha, F. A. Perthes. 

Editions in English. 

1. 1856 — Dred, a tale of the great Dismal Swamp. 2 Vols., 

No. 372, 373. 

2. 1859— T/ie Minister's Wooing, No. 494. 

3. l^m— Oldtown Folks, 2 Vols., No. 1019, 1020 (710«). 
Collection Brit. Authors. Leipzig; Tauchnitz. 



APPENDIX 101 

4. 1853— Tales from H. B. Stowe. Vol. 8, 9. Little Eng. 
Library, etc., with questions ^bj James McLean. Leip- 
zig, Baumgartner. 

(b) Reviews. 

1. Die MaiUume. Allgem. Zeitung, 1853, Beil. No. 63 ; Mar. 

4, p. 1107. 
Freiburger Zeitung, 1853, No. 43; Feb. 19, p. 170. 

Notice. 
Freiburger Zeitung, 1853, No. 66; Mar. 18 to Apr. 3, 

No. 80; Die Maihlume. 
Neue Preuss. Zeitung, 1853, No. 35 ; Feb. 12. 
Unterh. am hausl. Herd, 1853, No. 28. 

2. Dred. Grenzboten, 1856, IV, p. 197. Blatter fiir lit. 

Unterb., 1858, 1, No. 5, p. 91-2; Jan. 8. 

3. Sonnige Erinnerungen aus fremden Landen. Allgem. 

Zeitung, Beil., 1854, No. 271; Sept. 28. 

4. Des Predigers Brautwerhung. Blatter fiir lit. Unterh., 

1860, 1, No. 1; Jan. 1, p. 19-22. 

5. Byron Controversy. Blatter fur lit. Unterh. 1869, II, 

p. 622, No. 39. 



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